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Title: Isotopes and genes reveal freshwater origins of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha aggregations in California’s coastal ocean

The ability of salmon to navigate from the ocean back to their river of origin to spawn acts to reinforce local adaptation and maintenance of unique and heritable traits among salmon populations. Here, the extent to which Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the same freshwater breeding groups associate together in the ocean at regional and smaller-scale aggregations prior to homeward migration is evaluated. Natural variation in salmon otolith daily growth bands, strontium isotopes ( 87Sr/ 86Sr), and microsatellite DNA were used as intrinsic tags to link the distributions of fish caught in the ocean with their freshwater origins. Adults were caught from vessels by hook and line in small aggregations (7-18 ind.) at the same geographic location (1-24 km of coastline) and time (4-36 h) from 3 ocean regions along central California, USA. Salmon caught together in aggregations were from the same genetic group, and to a lesser extent, of the same natal origin (individual rivers or hatcheries). However, at regional scales, adult salmon mixed. Central Valley winter-run Chinook salmon caught together in the ocean varied in the duration of freshwater rearing for up to 2-3 mo prior to seaward migration, suggesting associations within the group were not established inmore » freshwater or maintained over the lifetime of the fish. Our findings are consistent with coarser information indicating stocks are distributed differently in time and space, but larger sample sizes are required to evaluate the consistency of patterns at smaller spatial scales. This study uncovers freshwater associations prior to homeward migration, a principle and undocumented prerequisite of the collective navigation hypothesis.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [6] ;  [7]
  1. NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service, Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Southwest Fisheries Science Center. Fisheries Ecology Division; Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
  2. NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service, Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Southwest Fisheries Science Center. Fisheries Ecology Division; Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Dept. of Ocean Sciences
  3. NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service, Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Southwest Fisheries Science Center. Fisheries Ecology Division; Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Inst. of Marine Sciences
  4. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Science
  5. Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Science
  6. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Glenn T. Seaborg Inst.
  7. Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-698547-DRAFT
Journal ID: ISSN 0171-8630
Grant/Contract Number:
AC52-07NA27344
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Marine Ecology - Progress Series
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 548; Journal ID: ISSN 0171-8630
Research Org:
NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Fisheries (United States); Univ. of California (United States); Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (United States); David and Lucile Packard Foundation (United States)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; winter-run Chinook salmon; schooling; otolith microchemistry; strontium; navigation
OSTI Identifier:
1357371

Johnson, Rachel C., Garza, John Carlos, MacFarlane, R. Bruce, Grimes, Churchill B., Phillis, Corey C., Koch, Paul L., Weber, Peter K., and Carr, Mark H.. Isotopes and genes reveal freshwater origins of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha aggregations in California’s coastal ocean. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.3354/meps11623.
Johnson, Rachel C., Garza, John Carlos, MacFarlane, R. Bruce, Grimes, Churchill B., Phillis, Corey C., Koch, Paul L., Weber, Peter K., & Carr, Mark H.. Isotopes and genes reveal freshwater origins of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha aggregations in California’s coastal ocean. United States. doi:10.3354/meps11623.
Johnson, Rachel C., Garza, John Carlos, MacFarlane, R. Bruce, Grimes, Churchill B., Phillis, Corey C., Koch, Paul L., Weber, Peter K., and Carr, Mark H.. 2016. "Isotopes and genes reveal freshwater origins of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha aggregations in California’s coastal ocean". United States. doi:10.3354/meps11623. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1357371.
@article{osti_1357371,
title = {Isotopes and genes reveal freshwater origins of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha aggregations in California’s coastal ocean},
author = {Johnson, Rachel C. and Garza, John Carlos and MacFarlane, R. Bruce and Grimes, Churchill B. and Phillis, Corey C. and Koch, Paul L. and Weber, Peter K. and Carr, Mark H.},
abstractNote = {The ability of salmon to navigate from the ocean back to their river of origin to spawn acts to reinforce local adaptation and maintenance of unique and heritable traits among salmon populations. Here, the extent to which Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the same freshwater breeding groups associate together in the ocean at regional and smaller-scale aggregations prior to homeward migration is evaluated. Natural variation in salmon otolith daily growth bands, strontium isotopes (87Sr/86Sr), and microsatellite DNA were used as intrinsic tags to link the distributions of fish caught in the ocean with their freshwater origins. Adults were caught from vessels by hook and line in small aggregations (7-18 ind.) at the same geographic location (1-24 km of coastline) and time (4-36 h) from 3 ocean regions along central California, USA. Salmon caught together in aggregations were from the same genetic group, and to a lesser extent, of the same natal origin (individual rivers or hatcheries). However, at regional scales, adult salmon mixed. Central Valley winter-run Chinook salmon caught together in the ocean varied in the duration of freshwater rearing for up to 2-3 mo prior to seaward migration, suggesting associations within the group were not established in freshwater or maintained over the lifetime of the fish. Our findings are consistent with coarser information indicating stocks are distributed differently in time and space, but larger sample sizes are required to evaluate the consistency of patterns at smaller spatial scales. This study uncovers freshwater associations prior to homeward migration, a principle and undocumented prerequisite of the collective navigation hypothesis.},
doi = {10.3354/meps11623},
journal = {Marine Ecology - Progress Series},
number = ,
volume = 548,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {4}
}