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Title: The quiescent intracluster medium in the core of the Perseus cluster

Clusters of galaxies are the most massive gravitationally bound objects in the Universe and are still forming. They are thus important probes of cosmological parameters and many astrophysical processes. However, knowledge of the dynamics of the pervasive hot gas, the mass of which is much larger than the combined mass of all the stars in the cluster, is lacking. Such knowledge would enable insights into the injection of mechanical energy by the central supermassive black hole and the use of hydrostatic equilibrium for determining cluster masses. X-rays from the core of the Perseus cluster are emitted by the 50-million-kelvin diffuse hot plasma filling its gravitational potential well. The active galactic nucleus of the central galaxy NGC 1275 is pumping jetted energy into the surrounding intracluster medium, creating buoyant bubbles filled with relativistic plasma. These bubbles probably induce motions in the intracluster medium and heat the inner gas, preventing runaway radiative cooling—a process known as active galactic nucleus feedback. In this paper, we report X-ray observations of the core of the Perseus cluster, which reveal a remarkably quiescent atmosphere in which the gas has a line-of-sight velocity dispersion of 164 ± 10 kilometres per second in the region 30–60 kiloparsecs frommore » the central nucleus. A gradient in the line-of-sight velocity of 150 ± 70 kilometres per second is found across the 60-kiloparsec image of the cluster core. Turbulent pressure support in the gas is four per cent of the thermodynamic pressure, with large-scale shear at most doubling this estimate. Finally, we infer that a total cluster mass determined from hydrostatic equilibrium in a central region would require little correction for turbulent pressure.« less
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Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-696939
Journal ID: ISSN 0028-0836
Grant/Contract Number:
AC52-07NA27344; AC03-76SF00515
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature (London)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Nature (London); Journal Volume: 535; Journal Issue: 7610; Journal ID: ISSN 0028-0836
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Research Org:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Contributing Orgs:
Hitomi Collaboration
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; galaxies and clusters; high-energy astrophysics
OSTI Identifier:
1357365

Aharonian, Felix, Akamatsu, Hiroki, Akimoto, Fumie, Allen, Steven W., Anabuki, Naohisa, Angelini, Lorella, Arnaud, Keith, Audard, Marc, Awaki, Hisamitsu, Axelsson, Magnus, Bamba, Aya, Bautz, Marshall, Blandford, Roger, Brenneman, Laura, Brown, Gregory V., Bulbul, Esra, Cackett, Edward, Chernyakova, Maria, Chiao, Meng, Coppi, Paolo, Costantini, Elisa, de Plaa, Jelle, den Herder, Jan-Willem, Done, Chris, Dotani, Tadayasu, Ebisawa, Ken, Eckart, Megan, Enoto, Teruaki, Ezoe, Yuichiro, Fabian, Andrew C., Ferrigno, Carlo, Foster, Adam, Fujimoto, Ryuichi, Fukazawa, Yasushi, Furuzawa, Akihiro, Galeazzi, Massimiliano, Gallo, Luigi, Gandhi, Poshak, Giustini, Margherita, Goldwurm, Andrea, Gu, Liyi, Guainazzi, Matteo, Haba, Yoshito, Hagino, Kouichi, Hamaguchi, Kenji, Harrus, Ilana, Hatsukade, Isamu, Hayashi, Katsuhiro, Hayashi, Takayuki, Hayashida, Kiyoshi, Hiraga, Junko, Hornschemeier, Ann, Hoshino, Akio, Hughes, John, Iizuka, Ryo, Inoue, Hajime, Inoue, Yoshiyuki, Ishibashi, Kazunori, Ishida, Manabu, Ishikawa, Kumi, Ishisaki, Yoshitaka, Itoh, Masayuki, Iyomoto, Naoko, Kaastra, Jelle, Kallman, Timothy, Kamae, Tuneyoshi, Kara, Erin, Kataoka, Jun, Katsuda, Satoru, Katsuta, Junichiro, Kawaharada, Madoka, Kawai, Nobuyuki, Kelley, Richard, Khangulyan, Dmitry, Kilbourne, Caroline, King, Ashley, Kitaguchi, Takao, Kitamoto, Shunji, Kitayama, Tetsu, Kohmura, Takayoshi, Kokubun, Motohide, Koyama, Shu, Koyama, Katsuji, Kretschmar, Peter, Krimm, Hans, Kubota, Aya, Kunieda, Hideyo, Laurent, Philippe, Lebrun, François, Lee, Shiu-Hang, Leutenegger, Maurice, Limousin, Olivier, Loewenstein, Michael, Long, Knox S., Lumb, David, Madejski, Grzegorz, Maeda, Yoshitomo, Maier, Daniel, Makishima, Kazuo, Markevitch, Maxim, Matsumoto, Hironori, Matsushita, Kyoko, McCammon, Dan, McNamara, Brian, Mehdipour, Missagh, Miller, Eric, Miller, Jon, Mineshige, Shin, Mitsuda, Kazuhisa, Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki, Miyazawa, Takuya, Mizuno, Tsunefumi, Mori, Hideyuki, Mori, Koji, Moseley, Harvey, Mukai, Koji, Murakami, Hiroshi, Murakami, Toshio, Mushotzky, Richard, Nagino, Ryo, Nakagawa, Takao, Nakajima, Hiroshi, Nakamori, Takeshi, Nakano, Toshio, Nakashima, Shinya, Nakazawa, Kazuhiro, Nobukawa, Masayoshi, Noda, Hirofumi, Nomachi, Masaharu, O’Dell, Steve, Odaka, Hirokazu, Ohashi, Takaya, Ohno, Masanori, Okajima, Takashi, Ota, Naomi, Ozaki, Masanobu, Paerels, Frits, Paltani, Stephane, Parmar, Arvind, Petre, Robert, Pinto, Ciro, Pohl, Martin, Porter, F. Scott, Pottschmidt, Katja, Ramsey, Brian, Reynolds, Christopher, Russell, Helen, Safi-Harb, Samar, Saito, Shinya, Sakai, Kazuhiro, Sameshima, Hiroaki, Sato, Goro, Sato, Kosuke, Sato, Rie, Sawada, Makoto, Schartel, Norbert, Serlemitsos, Peter, Seta, Hiromi, Shidatsu, Megumi, Simionescu, Aurora, Smith, Randall, Soong, Yang, Stawarz, Lukasz, Sugawara, Yasuharu, Sugita, Satoshi, Szymkowiak, Andrew, Tajima, Hiroyasu, Takahashi, Hiromitsu, Takahashi, Tadayuki, Takeda, Shin’ichiro, Takei, Yoh, Tamagawa, Toru, Tamura, Keisuke, Tamura, Takayuki, Tanaka, Takaaki, Tanaka, Yasuo, Tanaka, Yasuyuki, Tashiro, Makoto, Tawara, Yuzuru, Terada, Yukikatsu, Terashima, Yuichi, Tombesi, Francesco, Tomida, Hiroshi, Tsuboi, Yohko, Tsujimoto, Masahiro, Tsunemi, Hiroshi, Tsuru, Takeshi, Uchida, Hiroyuki, Uchiyama, Hideki, Uchiyama, Yasunobu, Ueda, Shutaro, Ueda, Yoshihiro, Ueno, Shiro, Uno, Shin’ichiro, Urry, Meg, Ursino, Eugenio, de Vries, Cor, Watanabe, Shin, Werner, Norbert, Wik, Daniel, Wilkins, Dan, Williams, Brian, Yamada, Shinya, Yamaguchi, Hiroya, Yamaoka, Kazutaka, Yamasaki, Noriko Y., Yamauchi, Makoto, Yamauchi, Shigeo, Yaqoob, Tahir, Yatsu, Yoichi, Yonetoku, Daisuke, Yoshida, Atsumasa, Yuasa, Takayuki, Zhuravleva, Irina, and Zoghbi, Abderahmen. The quiescent intracluster medium in the core of the Perseus cluster. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1038/nature18627.
Aharonian, Felix, Akamatsu, Hiroki, Akimoto, Fumie, Allen, Steven W., Anabuki, Naohisa, Angelini, Lorella, Arnaud, Keith, Audard, Marc, Awaki, Hisamitsu, Axelsson, Magnus, Bamba, Aya, Bautz, Marshall, Blandford, Roger, Brenneman, Laura, Brown, Gregory V., Bulbul, Esra, Cackett, Edward, Chernyakova, Maria, Chiao, Meng, Coppi, Paolo, Costantini, Elisa, de Plaa, Jelle, den Herder, Jan-Willem, Done, Chris, Dotani, Tadayasu, Ebisawa, Ken, Eckart, Megan, Enoto, Teruaki, Ezoe, Yuichiro, Fabian, Andrew C., Ferrigno, Carlo, Foster, Adam, Fujimoto, Ryuichi, Fukazawa, Yasushi, Furuzawa, Akihiro, Galeazzi, Massimiliano, Gallo, Luigi, Gandhi, Poshak, Giustini, Margherita, Goldwurm, Andrea, Gu, Liyi, Guainazzi, Matteo, Haba, Yoshito, Hagino, Kouichi, Hamaguchi, Kenji, Harrus, Ilana, Hatsukade, Isamu, Hayashi, Katsuhiro, Hayashi, Takayuki, Hayashida, Kiyoshi, Hiraga, Junko, Hornschemeier, Ann, Hoshino, Akio, Hughes, John, Iizuka, Ryo, Inoue, Hajime, Inoue, Yoshiyuki, Ishibashi, Kazunori, Ishida, Manabu, Ishikawa, Kumi, Ishisaki, Yoshitaka, Itoh, Masayuki, Iyomoto, Naoko, Kaastra, Jelle, Kallman, Timothy, Kamae, Tuneyoshi, Kara, Erin, Kataoka, Jun, Katsuda, Satoru, Katsuta, Junichiro, Kawaharada, Madoka, Kawai, Nobuyuki, Kelley, Richard, Khangulyan, Dmitry, Kilbourne, Caroline, King, Ashley, Kitaguchi, Takao, Kitamoto, Shunji, Kitayama, Tetsu, Kohmura, Takayoshi, Kokubun, Motohide, Koyama, Shu, Koyama, Katsuji, Kretschmar, Peter, Krimm, Hans, Kubota, Aya, Kunieda, Hideyo, Laurent, Philippe, Lebrun, François, Lee, Shiu-Hang, Leutenegger, Maurice, Limousin, Olivier, Loewenstein, Michael, Long, Knox S., Lumb, David, Madejski, Grzegorz, Maeda, Yoshitomo, Maier, Daniel, Makishima, Kazuo, Markevitch, Maxim, Matsumoto, Hironori, Matsushita, Kyoko, McCammon, Dan, McNamara, Brian, Mehdipour, Missagh, Miller, Eric, Miller, Jon, Mineshige, Shin, Mitsuda, Kazuhisa, Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki, Miyazawa, Takuya, Mizuno, Tsunefumi, Mori, Hideyuki, Mori, Koji, Moseley, Harvey, Mukai, Koji, Murakami, Hiroshi, Murakami, Toshio, Mushotzky, Richard, Nagino, Ryo, Nakagawa, Takao, Nakajima, Hiroshi, Nakamori, Takeshi, Nakano, Toshio, Nakashima, Shinya, Nakazawa, Kazuhiro, Nobukawa, Masayoshi, Noda, Hirofumi, Nomachi, Masaharu, O’Dell, Steve, Odaka, Hirokazu, Ohashi, Takaya, Ohno, Masanori, Okajima, Takashi, Ota, Naomi, Ozaki, Masanobu, Paerels, Frits, Paltani, Stephane, Parmar, Arvind, Petre, Robert, Pinto, Ciro, Pohl, Martin, Porter, F. Scott, Pottschmidt, Katja, Ramsey, Brian, Reynolds, Christopher, Russell, Helen, Safi-Harb, Samar, Saito, Shinya, Sakai, Kazuhiro, Sameshima, Hiroaki, Sato, Goro, Sato, Kosuke, Sato, Rie, Sawada, Makoto, Schartel, Norbert, Serlemitsos, Peter, Seta, Hiromi, Shidatsu, Megumi, Simionescu, Aurora, Smith, Randall, Soong, Yang, Stawarz, Lukasz, Sugawara, Yasuharu, Sugita, Satoshi, Szymkowiak, Andrew, Tajima, Hiroyasu, Takahashi, Hiromitsu, Takahashi, Tadayuki, Takeda, Shin’ichiro, Takei, Yoh, Tamagawa, Toru, Tamura, Keisuke, Tamura, Takayuki, Tanaka, Takaaki, Tanaka, Yasuo, Tanaka, Yasuyuki, Tashiro, Makoto, Tawara, Yuzuru, Terada, Yukikatsu, Terashima, Yuichi, Tombesi, Francesco, Tomida, Hiroshi, Tsuboi, Yohko, Tsujimoto, Masahiro, Tsunemi, Hiroshi, Tsuru, Takeshi, Uchida, Hiroyuki, Uchiyama, Hideki, Uchiyama, Yasunobu, Ueda, Shutaro, Ueda, Yoshihiro, Ueno, Shiro, Uno, Shin’ichiro, Urry, Meg, Ursino, Eugenio, de Vries, Cor, Watanabe, Shin, Werner, Norbert, Wik, Daniel, Wilkins, Dan, Williams, Brian, Yamada, Shinya, Yamaguchi, Hiroya, Yamaoka, Kazutaka, Yamasaki, Noriko Y., Yamauchi, Makoto, Yamauchi, Shigeo, Yaqoob, Tahir, Yatsu, Yoichi, Yonetoku, Daisuke, Yoshida, Atsumasa, Yuasa, Takayuki, Zhuravleva, Irina, & Zoghbi, Abderahmen. The quiescent intracluster medium in the core of the Perseus cluster. United States. doi:10.1038/nature18627.
Aharonian, Felix, Akamatsu, Hiroki, Akimoto, Fumie, Allen, Steven W., Anabuki, Naohisa, Angelini, Lorella, Arnaud, Keith, Audard, Marc, Awaki, Hisamitsu, Axelsson, Magnus, Bamba, Aya, Bautz, Marshall, Blandford, Roger, Brenneman, Laura, Brown, Gregory V., Bulbul, Esra, Cackett, Edward, Chernyakova, Maria, Chiao, Meng, Coppi, Paolo, Costantini, Elisa, de Plaa, Jelle, den Herder, Jan-Willem, Done, Chris, Dotani, Tadayasu, Ebisawa, Ken, Eckart, Megan, Enoto, Teruaki, Ezoe, Yuichiro, Fabian, Andrew C., Ferrigno, Carlo, Foster, Adam, Fujimoto, Ryuichi, Fukazawa, Yasushi, Furuzawa, Akihiro, Galeazzi, Massimiliano, Gallo, Luigi, Gandhi, Poshak, Giustini, Margherita, Goldwurm, Andrea, Gu, Liyi, Guainazzi, Matteo, Haba, Yoshito, Hagino, Kouichi, Hamaguchi, Kenji, Harrus, Ilana, Hatsukade, Isamu, Hayashi, Katsuhiro, Hayashi, Takayuki, Hayashida, Kiyoshi, Hiraga, Junko, Hornschemeier, Ann, Hoshino, Akio, Hughes, John, Iizuka, Ryo, Inoue, Hajime, Inoue, Yoshiyuki, Ishibashi, Kazunori, Ishida, Manabu, Ishikawa, Kumi, Ishisaki, Yoshitaka, Itoh, Masayuki, Iyomoto, Naoko, Kaastra, Jelle, Kallman, Timothy, Kamae, Tuneyoshi, Kara, Erin, Kataoka, Jun, Katsuda, Satoru, Katsuta, Junichiro, Kawaharada, Madoka, Kawai, Nobuyuki, Kelley, Richard, Khangulyan, Dmitry, Kilbourne, Caroline, King, Ashley, Kitaguchi, Takao, Kitamoto, Shunji, Kitayama, Tetsu, Kohmura, Takayoshi, Kokubun, Motohide, Koyama, Shu, Koyama, Katsuji, Kretschmar, Peter, Krimm, Hans, Kubota, Aya, Kunieda, Hideyo, Laurent, Philippe, Lebrun, François, Lee, Shiu-Hang, Leutenegger, Maurice, Limousin, Olivier, Loewenstein, Michael, Long, Knox S., Lumb, David, Madejski, Grzegorz, Maeda, Yoshitomo, Maier, Daniel, Makishima, Kazuo, Markevitch, Maxim, Matsumoto, Hironori, Matsushita, Kyoko, McCammon, Dan, McNamara, Brian, Mehdipour, Missagh, Miller, Eric, Miller, Jon, Mineshige, Shin, Mitsuda, Kazuhisa, Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki, Miyazawa, Takuya, Mizuno, Tsunefumi, Mori, Hideyuki, Mori, Koji, Moseley, Harvey, Mukai, Koji, Murakami, Hiroshi, Murakami, Toshio, Mushotzky, Richard, Nagino, Ryo, Nakagawa, Takao, Nakajima, Hiroshi, Nakamori, Takeshi, Nakano, Toshio, Nakashima, Shinya, Nakazawa, Kazuhiro, Nobukawa, Masayoshi, Noda, Hirofumi, Nomachi, Masaharu, O’Dell, Steve, Odaka, Hirokazu, Ohashi, Takaya, Ohno, Masanori, Okajima, Takashi, Ota, Naomi, Ozaki, Masanobu, Paerels, Frits, Paltani, Stephane, Parmar, Arvind, Petre, Robert, Pinto, Ciro, Pohl, Martin, Porter, F. Scott, Pottschmidt, Katja, Ramsey, Brian, Reynolds, Christopher, Russell, Helen, Safi-Harb, Samar, Saito, Shinya, Sakai, Kazuhiro, Sameshima, Hiroaki, Sato, Goro, Sato, Kosuke, Sato, Rie, Sawada, Makoto, Schartel, Norbert, Serlemitsos, Peter, Seta, Hiromi, Shidatsu, Megumi, Simionescu, Aurora, Smith, Randall, Soong, Yang, Stawarz, Lukasz, Sugawara, Yasuharu, Sugita, Satoshi, Szymkowiak, Andrew, Tajima, Hiroyasu, Takahashi, Hiromitsu, Takahashi, Tadayuki, Takeda, Shin’ichiro, Takei, Yoh, Tamagawa, Toru, Tamura, Keisuke, Tamura, Takayuki, Tanaka, Takaaki, Tanaka, Yasuo, Tanaka, Yasuyuki, Tashiro, Makoto, Tawara, Yuzuru, Terada, Yukikatsu, Terashima, Yuichi, Tombesi, Francesco, Tomida, Hiroshi, Tsuboi, Yohko, Tsujimoto, Masahiro, Tsunemi, Hiroshi, Tsuru, Takeshi, Uchida, Hiroyuki, Uchiyama, Hideki, Uchiyama, Yasunobu, Ueda, Shutaro, Ueda, Yoshihiro, Ueno, Shiro, Uno, Shin’ichiro, Urry, Meg, Ursino, Eugenio, de Vries, Cor, Watanabe, Shin, Werner, Norbert, Wik, Daniel, Wilkins, Dan, Williams, Brian, Yamada, Shinya, Yamaguchi, Hiroya, Yamaoka, Kazutaka, Yamasaki, Noriko Y., Yamauchi, Makoto, Yamauchi, Shigeo, Yaqoob, Tahir, Yatsu, Yoichi, Yonetoku, Daisuke, Yoshida, Atsumasa, Yuasa, Takayuki, Zhuravleva, Irina, and Zoghbi, Abderahmen. 2016. "The quiescent intracluster medium in the core of the Perseus cluster". United States. doi:10.1038/nature18627. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1357365.
@article{osti_1357365,
title = {The quiescent intracluster medium in the core of the Perseus cluster},
author = {Aharonian, Felix and Akamatsu, Hiroki and Akimoto, Fumie and Allen, Steven W. and Anabuki, Naohisa and Angelini, Lorella and Arnaud, Keith and Audard, Marc and Awaki, Hisamitsu and Axelsson, Magnus and Bamba, Aya and Bautz, Marshall and Blandford, Roger and Brenneman, Laura and Brown, Gregory V. and Bulbul, Esra and Cackett, Edward and Chernyakova, Maria and Chiao, Meng and Coppi, Paolo and Costantini, Elisa and de Plaa, Jelle and den Herder, Jan-Willem and Done, Chris and Dotani, Tadayasu and Ebisawa, Ken and Eckart, Megan and Enoto, Teruaki and Ezoe, Yuichiro and Fabian, Andrew C. and Ferrigno, Carlo and Foster, Adam and Fujimoto, Ryuichi and Fukazawa, Yasushi and Furuzawa, Akihiro and Galeazzi, Massimiliano and Gallo, Luigi and Gandhi, Poshak and Giustini, Margherita and Goldwurm, Andrea and Gu, Liyi and Guainazzi, Matteo and Haba, Yoshito and Hagino, Kouichi and Hamaguchi, Kenji and Harrus, Ilana and Hatsukade, Isamu and Hayashi, Katsuhiro and Hayashi, Takayuki and Hayashida, Kiyoshi and Hiraga, Junko and Hornschemeier, Ann and Hoshino, Akio and Hughes, John and Iizuka, Ryo and Inoue, Hajime and Inoue, Yoshiyuki and Ishibashi, Kazunori and Ishida, Manabu and Ishikawa, Kumi and Ishisaki, Yoshitaka and Itoh, Masayuki and Iyomoto, Naoko and Kaastra, Jelle and Kallman, Timothy and Kamae, Tuneyoshi and Kara, Erin and Kataoka, Jun and Katsuda, Satoru and Katsuta, Junichiro and Kawaharada, Madoka and Kawai, Nobuyuki and Kelley, Richard and Khangulyan, Dmitry and Kilbourne, Caroline and King, Ashley and Kitaguchi, Takao and Kitamoto, Shunji and Kitayama, Tetsu and Kohmura, Takayoshi and Kokubun, Motohide and Koyama, Shu and Koyama, Katsuji and Kretschmar, Peter and Krimm, Hans and Kubota, Aya and Kunieda, Hideyo and Laurent, Philippe and Lebrun, François and Lee, Shiu-Hang and Leutenegger, Maurice and Limousin, Olivier and Loewenstein, Michael and Long, Knox S. and Lumb, David and Madejski, Grzegorz and Maeda, Yoshitomo and Maier, Daniel and Makishima, Kazuo and Markevitch, Maxim and Matsumoto, Hironori and Matsushita, Kyoko and McCammon, Dan and McNamara, Brian and Mehdipour, Missagh and Miller, Eric and Miller, Jon and Mineshige, Shin and Mitsuda, Kazuhisa and Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki and Miyazawa, Takuya and Mizuno, Tsunefumi and Mori, Hideyuki and Mori, Koji and Moseley, Harvey and Mukai, Koji and Murakami, Hiroshi and Murakami, Toshio and Mushotzky, Richard and Nagino, Ryo and Nakagawa, Takao and Nakajima, Hiroshi and Nakamori, Takeshi and Nakano, Toshio and Nakashima, Shinya and Nakazawa, Kazuhiro and Nobukawa, Masayoshi and Noda, Hirofumi and Nomachi, Masaharu and O’Dell, Steve and Odaka, Hirokazu and Ohashi, Takaya and Ohno, Masanori and Okajima, Takashi and Ota, Naomi and Ozaki, Masanobu and Paerels, Frits and Paltani, Stephane and Parmar, Arvind and Petre, Robert and Pinto, Ciro and Pohl, Martin and Porter, F. Scott and Pottschmidt, Katja and Ramsey, Brian and Reynolds, Christopher and Russell, Helen and Safi-Harb, Samar and Saito, Shinya and Sakai, Kazuhiro and Sameshima, Hiroaki and Sato, Goro and Sato, Kosuke and Sato, Rie and Sawada, Makoto and Schartel, Norbert and Serlemitsos, Peter and Seta, Hiromi and Shidatsu, Megumi and Simionescu, Aurora and Smith, Randall and Soong, Yang and Stawarz, Lukasz and Sugawara, Yasuharu and Sugita, Satoshi and Szymkowiak, Andrew and Tajima, Hiroyasu and Takahashi, Hiromitsu and Takahashi, Tadayuki and Takeda, Shin’ichiro and Takei, Yoh and Tamagawa, Toru and Tamura, Keisuke and Tamura, Takayuki and Tanaka, Takaaki and Tanaka, Yasuo and Tanaka, Yasuyuki and Tashiro, Makoto and Tawara, Yuzuru and Terada, Yukikatsu and Terashima, Yuichi and Tombesi, Francesco and Tomida, Hiroshi and Tsuboi, Yohko and Tsujimoto, Masahiro and Tsunemi, Hiroshi and Tsuru, Takeshi and Uchida, Hiroyuki and Uchiyama, Hideki and Uchiyama, Yasunobu and Ueda, Shutaro and Ueda, Yoshihiro and Ueno, Shiro and Uno, Shin’ichiro and Urry, Meg and Ursino, Eugenio and de Vries, Cor and Watanabe, Shin and Werner, Norbert and Wik, Daniel and Wilkins, Dan and Williams, Brian and Yamada, Shinya and Yamaguchi, Hiroya and Yamaoka, Kazutaka and Yamasaki, Noriko Y. and Yamauchi, Makoto and Yamauchi, Shigeo and Yaqoob, Tahir and Yatsu, Yoichi and Yonetoku, Daisuke and Yoshida, Atsumasa and Yuasa, Takayuki and Zhuravleva, Irina and Zoghbi, Abderahmen},
abstractNote = {Clusters of galaxies are the most massive gravitationally bound objects in the Universe and are still forming. They are thus important probes of cosmological parameters and many astrophysical processes. However, knowledge of the dynamics of the pervasive hot gas, the mass of which is much larger than the combined mass of all the stars in the cluster, is lacking. Such knowledge would enable insights into the injection of mechanical energy by the central supermassive black hole and the use of hydrostatic equilibrium for determining cluster masses. X-rays from the core of the Perseus cluster are emitted by the 50-million-kelvin diffuse hot plasma filling its gravitational potential well. The active galactic nucleus of the central galaxy NGC 1275 is pumping jetted energy into the surrounding intracluster medium, creating buoyant bubbles filled with relativistic plasma. These bubbles probably induce motions in the intracluster medium and heat the inner gas, preventing runaway radiative cooling—a process known as active galactic nucleus feedback. In this paper, we report X-ray observations of the core of the Perseus cluster, which reveal a remarkably quiescent atmosphere in which the gas has a line-of-sight velocity dispersion of 164 ± 10 kilometres per second in the region 30–60 kiloparsecs from the central nucleus. A gradient in the line-of-sight velocity of 150 ± 70 kilometres per second is found across the 60-kiloparsec image of the cluster core. Turbulent pressure support in the gas is four per cent of the thermodynamic pressure, with large-scale shear at most doubling this estimate. Finally, we infer that a total cluster mass determined from hydrostatic equilibrium in a central region would require little correction for turbulent pressure.},
doi = {10.1038/nature18627},
journal = {Nature (London)},
number = 7610,
volume = 535,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {7}
}