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Title: Pulsar timing for the Fermi gamma-ray space telescope

Abstract

Here, we describe a comprehensive pulsar monitoring campaign for the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST). The detection and study of pulsars in gamma rays give insights into the populations of neutron stars and supernova rates in the Galaxy, into particle acceleration mechanisms in neutron star magnetospheres, and into the “engines” driving pulsar wind nebulae. LAT's unprecedented sensitivity between 20 MeV and 300 GeV together with its 2.4 sr field-of-view makes detection of many gamma-ray pulsars likely, justifying the monitoring of over two hundred pulsars with large spin-down powers. To search for gamma-ray pulsations from most of these pulsars requires a set of phase-connected timing solutions spanning a year or more to properly align the sparse photon arrival times. We describe the choice of pulsars and the instruments involved in the campaign. Attention is paid to verifications of the LAT pulsar software, using for example giant radio pulses from the Crab and from PSR B1937+21 recorded at Nançay, and using X-ray data on PSR J0218+4232 from XMM-Newton. We demonstrate accuracy of the pulsar phase calculations at the microsecond level.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [1];  [4];  [5];  [2];  [6];  [7];  [7];  [8];  [9];  [8];  [9];  [7];  [6];  [10];  [9];  [11] more »;  [12];  [13];  [9];  [14];  [6];  [15];  [16];  [7] « less
  1. Univ. of Bordeaux, Gradignan (France). Centre d'etudes nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Inst. National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules (CNRS/IN2P3)
  2. Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Columbia Astrophysics Lab.
  3. Univ. of Orleans (France). Lab. of Physics and Chemistry of Environment and Space; Paris Observatory (France). Nancay radio telescope
  4. Univ. of Manchester, Macclesfield (United Kingdom). Jodrell Bank Observatory
  5. Arecibo Observatory (Puerto Rico)
  6. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States)
  7. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Epping, NSW (Australia). Australia Telescope National Facility
  8. McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada)
  9. Univ. of Manchester, Macclesfield (United Kingdom). Jodrell Bank Observatory
  10. West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Physics
  11. National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA (United States)
  12. Eureka Scientific, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States)
  13. Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Physics
  14. Univ. of Orleans (France). Lab. of Physics and Chemistry of Environment and Space; Paris Observatory (France). Nancay radio telescope; Paris Observatory (France). GEPI
  15. Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Dept. of Astronomy & Astrophysics
  16. National Astronomical Observatories-CAS, Urumqi (China)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1357321
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astronomy and Astrophysics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 492; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-6361
Publisher:
EDP Sciences
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; pulsars; Gamma-rays; Ephemerides

Citation Formats

Smith, D. A., Guillemot, L., Camilo, F., Cognard, I., Dumora, D., Espinoza, C., Freire, P. C. C., Gotthelf, E. V., Harding, A. K., Hobbs, G. B., Johnston, S., Kaspi, V. M., Kramer, M., Livingstone, M. A., Lyne, A. G., Manchester, R. N., Marshall, F. E., McLaughlin, M. A., Noutsos, A., Ransom, S. M., Roberts, M. S. E., Romani, R. W., Stappers, B. W., Theureau, G., Thompson, D. J., Thorsett, S. E., Wang, N., and Weltevrede, P. Pulsar timing for the Fermi gamma-ray space telescope. United States: N. p., 2008. Web. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:200810285.
Smith, D. A., Guillemot, L., Camilo, F., Cognard, I., Dumora, D., Espinoza, C., Freire, P. C. C., Gotthelf, E. V., Harding, A. K., Hobbs, G. B., Johnston, S., Kaspi, V. M., Kramer, M., Livingstone, M. A., Lyne, A. G., Manchester, R. N., Marshall, F. E., McLaughlin, M. A., Noutsos, A., Ransom, S. M., Roberts, M. S. E., Romani, R. W., Stappers, B. W., Theureau, G., Thompson, D. J., Thorsett, S. E., Wang, N., & Weltevrede, P. Pulsar timing for the Fermi gamma-ray space telescope. United States. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:200810285.
Smith, D. A., Guillemot, L., Camilo, F., Cognard, I., Dumora, D., Espinoza, C., Freire, P. C. C., Gotthelf, E. V., Harding, A. K., Hobbs, G. B., Johnston, S., Kaspi, V. M., Kramer, M., Livingstone, M. A., Lyne, A. G., Manchester, R. N., Marshall, F. E., McLaughlin, M. A., Noutsos, A., Ransom, S. M., Roberts, M. S. E., Romani, R. W., Stappers, B. W., Theureau, G., Thompson, D. J., Thorsett, S. E., Wang, N., and Weltevrede, P. Mon . "Pulsar timing for the Fermi gamma-ray space telescope". United States. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:200810285. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1357321.
@article{osti_1357321,
title = {Pulsar timing for the Fermi gamma-ray space telescope},
author = {Smith, D. A. and Guillemot, L. and Camilo, F. and Cognard, I. and Dumora, D. and Espinoza, C. and Freire, P. C. C. and Gotthelf, E. V. and Harding, A. K. and Hobbs, G. B. and Johnston, S. and Kaspi, V. M. and Kramer, M. and Livingstone, M. A. and Lyne, A. G. and Manchester, R. N. and Marshall, F. E. and McLaughlin, M. A. and Noutsos, A. and Ransom, S. M. and Roberts, M. S. E. and Romani, R. W. and Stappers, B. W. and Theureau, G. and Thompson, D. J. and Thorsett, S. E. and Wang, N. and Weltevrede, P.},
abstractNote = {Here, we describe a comprehensive pulsar monitoring campaign for the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST). The detection and study of pulsars in gamma rays give insights into the populations of neutron stars and supernova rates in the Galaxy, into particle acceleration mechanisms in neutron star magnetospheres, and into the “engines” driving pulsar wind nebulae. LAT's unprecedented sensitivity between 20 MeV and 300 GeV together with its 2.4 sr field-of-view makes detection of many gamma-ray pulsars likely, justifying the monitoring of over two hundred pulsars with large spin-down powers. To search for gamma-ray pulsations from most of these pulsars requires a set of phase-connected timing solutions spanning a year or more to properly align the sparse photon arrival times. We describe the choice of pulsars and the instruments involved in the campaign. Attention is paid to verifications of the LAT pulsar software, using for example giant radio pulses from the Crab and from PSR B1937+21 recorded at Nançay, and using X-ray data on PSR J0218+4232 from XMM-Newton. We demonstrate accuracy of the pulsar phase calculations at the microsecond level.},
doi = {10.1051/0004-6361:200810285},
journal = {Astronomy and Astrophysics},
number = 3,
volume = 492,
place = {United States},
year = {2008},
month = {10}
}

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Redundant publication
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Preface
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    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Pulsar timing. III - Timing noise of 50 pulsars
    journal, July 1980

    • Cordes, J. M.; Helfand, D. J.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 239
    • DOI: 10.1086/158150

    Precision Timing of PSR J0437−4715: An Accurate Pulsar Distance, a High Pulsar Mass, and a Limit on the Variation of Newton’s Gravitational Constant
    journal, May 2008

    • Verbiest, J. P. W.; Bailes, M.; van Straten, W.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 679, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1086/529576

    Preface
    journal, January 2001


    Pulsar timing at Urumqi Astronomical Observatory: observing system and results
    journal, December 2001


    Interstellar propagation effects and the precision of pulsar timing
    journal, November 1990

    • Foster, R. S.; Cordes, J. M.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 364
    • DOI: 10.1086/169393

    tempo2, a new pulsar-timing package - I. An overview: tempo2, a new pulsar-timing package - I. Overview
    journal, May 2006


    The New Northern Cross Pulsar System: Four Years of Pulsar Timing Observations
    journal, September 1996

    • D'Amico, N.; Grueff, G.; Montebugnoli, S.
    • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 106
    • DOI: 10.1086/192350

    The Australia Telescope National Facility Pulsar Catalogue
    journal, April 2005

    • Manchester, R. N.; Hobbs, G. B.; Teoh, A.
    • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 129, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1086/428488

    Kinematics of the local universe: XII. 21-cm line measurements of 586 galaxies with the new Nançay receiver
    journal, January 2005


    Prospects for high energy studies of pulsars with the AGILE γ-ray telescope
    journal, January 2004


    The Parkes Multibeam Pulsar Survey - III. Young pulsars and the discovery and timing of 200 pulsars
    journal, July 2003


    The Third EGRET Catalog of High‐Energy Gamma‐Ray Sources
    journal, July 1999

    • Hartman, R. C.; Bertsch, D. L.; Bloom, S. D.
    • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 123, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1086/313231

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    • Cognard,, I.; Shrauner,, J. A.; Taylor,, J. H.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 457, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1086/309894

    An Upper Limit on the Power-Law Index of the Radio Spectrum of Geminga
    journal, February 1999

    • Burderi, L.; Fauci, F.; Boriakoff, V.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 512, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1086/311855

    Enhanced Optical Emission During Crab Giant Radio Pulses
    journal, July 2003


    XMM-Newton spectral and timing observations of the millisecond pulsar PSR J0218+4232
    journal, March 2004


    Multifrequency Observations of Giant Radio Pulses from the Millisecond Pulsar B1937+21
    journal, May 2000

    • Kinkhabwala, A.; Thorsett, S. E.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 535, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1086/308844

    Galactic Populations of Radio and Gamma‐Ray Pulsars in the Polar Cap Model
    journal, January 2002

    • Gonthier, Peter L.; Ouellette, Michelle S.; Berrier, Joel
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 565, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1086/324535

    Dispersion measure variations and their effect on precision pulsar timing
    journal, June 2007


    The Geminga fraction
    journal, April 2007

    • Harding, Alice K.; Grenier, Isabelle A.; Gonthier, Peter L.
    • Astrophysics and Space Science, Vol. 309, Issue 1-4
    • DOI: 10.1007/s10509-007-9435-6

    Detection of 107 glitches in 36 southern pulsars
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    • Yu, M.; Manchester, R. N.; Hobbs, G.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 429, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sts366

    High‐Resolution Spatial and Timing Observations of Millisecond Pulsar PSR J0218+4232 with Chandra
    journal, October 2002

    • Kuiper, L.; Hermsen, W.; Verbunt, F.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 577, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1086/342220

    23 years of Crab pulsar rotational history
    journal, December 1993

    • Lyne, A. G.; Pritchard, R. S.; Graham Smith, F.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 265, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/265.4.1003

    Gamma Radiation from PSR B1055−52
    journal, May 1999

    • Thompson, D. J.; Bailes, M.; Bertsch, D. L.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 516, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1086/307083

    Avalanche Dynamics of Radio Pulsar Glitches
    journal, January 2008

    • Melatos, A.; Peralta, C.; Wyithe, J. S. B.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 672, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1086/523349

    Theory of pulsars - Polar caps, sparks, and coherent microwave radiation
    journal, February 1975

    • Ruderman, M. A.; Sutherland, P. G.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 196
    • DOI: 10.1086/153393

    Energy dependent γ -ray morphology in the pulsar wind nebula HESS J1825–137
    journal, September 2006

    • Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Bazer-Bachi, A. R.
    • Astronomy & Astrophysics, Vol. 460, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20065546

    Observations of 20 Millisecond Pulsars in 47 Tucanae at 20 Centimeters
    journal, June 2000

    • Camilo, F.; Lorimer, D. R.; Freire, P.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 535, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1086/308859

    Role of Beam Geometry in Population Statistics and Pulse Profiles of Radio and Gamma‐Ray Pulsars
    journal, April 2004

    • Gonthier, Peter L.; Van Guilder, Robert; Harding, Alice K.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 604, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1086/382070

    The 69 Millisecond Radio Pulsar near the Supernova Remnant RCW 103
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