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Title: Fermi-LAT Search for Pulsar Wind Nebulae around gamma-ray Pulsars

Abstract

The high sensitivity of the Fermi-LAT (Large Area Telescope) offers the first opportunity to study faint and extended GeV sources such as pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). After one year of observation the LAT detected and identified three PWNe: the Crab Nebula, Vela-X, and the PWN inside MSH 15-52. In the meantime, the list of LAT detected pulsars increased steadily. These pulsars are characterized by high energy loss rates ($$\dot{E}$$) from ~3 × 10 33 erg s –1 to 5 × 10 38 erg s –1 and are therefore likely to power a PWN. This paper summarizes the search for PWNe in the off-pulse windows of 54 LAT-detected pulsars using 16 months of survey observations. Ten sources show significant emission, seven of these likely being of magnetospheric origin. The detection of significant emission in the off-pulse interval offers new constraints on the γ-ray emitting regions in pulsar magnetospheres. The three other sources with significant emission are the Crab Nebula, Vela-X, and a new PWN candidate associated with the LAT pulsar PSR J1023–5746, coincident with the TeV source HESS J1023–575. Here, we further explore the association between the HESS and the Fermi source by modeling its spectral energy distribution. Lastly, flux upper limits derived for the 44 remaining sources are used to provide new constraints on famous PWNe that have been detected at keV and/or TeV energies.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more »; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Contributing Org.:
The Fermi-LAT Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1357270
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astrophysical Journal
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 726; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-637X
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; catalogs; gamma rays; pulsars

Citation Formats

Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Berenji, B., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bouvier, A., Bregeon, J., Brez, A., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Camilo, F., Caraveo, P. A., Casandjian, J. M., Cecchi, C., Çelik, Ö., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cognard, I., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Conrad, J., Dermer, C. D., de Angelis, A., de Luca, A., de Palma, F., Digel, S. W., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Dubois, R., Dumora, D., Favuzzi, C., Focke, W. B., Frailis, M., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Germani, S., Giglietto, N., Giommi, P., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Grove, J. E., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Hadasch, D., Hanabata, Y., Harding, A. K., Hayashi, K., Hays, E., Hobbs, G., Hughes, R. E., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, W. N., Johnston, S., Kamae, T., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Keith, M., Kerr, M., Knödlseder, J., Kramer, M., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Latronico, L., Lee, S. -H., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Lyne, A. G., Makeev, A., Marelli, M., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Mehault, J., Michelson, P. F., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nakamori, T., Naumann-Godo, M., Nolan, P. L., Noutsos, A., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Okumura, A., Ormes, J. F., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Parent, D., Pelassa, V., Pepe, M., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Ransom, S. M., Ray, P. S., Razzano, M., Rea, N., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Ripken, J., Ritz, S., Romani, R. W., Sadrozinski, H. F. -W., Sander, A., Parkinson, P. M. Saz, Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Smith, D. A., Smith, P. D., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Strickman, M. S., Suson, D. J., Takahashi, H., Takahashi, T., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J. B., Thayer, J. G., Theureau, G., Thompson, D. J., Thorsett, S. E., Tibaldo, L., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Tramacere, A., Uchiyama, Y., Uehara, T., Usher, T. L., Vandenbroucke, J., Van Etten, A., Vasileiou, V., Vilchez, N., Vitale, V., Waite, A. P., Wang, P., Weltevrede, P., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., Yang, Z., Ylinen, T., and Ziegler, M.. Fermi-LAT Search for Pulsar Wind Nebulae around gamma-ray Pulsars. United States: N. p., 2010. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/726/1/35.
Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Berenji, B., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bouvier, A., Bregeon, J., Brez, A., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Camilo, F., Caraveo, P. A., Casandjian, J. M., Cecchi, C., Çelik, Ö., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cognard, I., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Conrad, J., Dermer, C. D., de Angelis, A., de Luca, A., de Palma, F., Digel, S. W., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Dubois, R., Dumora, D., Favuzzi, C., Focke, W. B., Frailis, M., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Germani, S., Giglietto, N., Giommi, P., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Grove, J. E., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Hadasch, D., Hanabata, Y., Harding, A. K., Hayashi, K., Hays, E., Hobbs, G., Hughes, R. E., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, W. N., Johnston, S., Kamae, T., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Keith, M., Kerr, M., Knödlseder, J., Kramer, M., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Latronico, L., Lee, S. -H., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Lyne, A. G., Makeev, A., Marelli, M., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Mehault, J., Michelson, P. F., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nakamori, T., Naumann-Godo, M., Nolan, P. L., Noutsos, A., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Okumura, A., Ormes, J. F., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Parent, D., Pelassa, V., Pepe, M., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Ransom, S. M., Ray, P. S., Razzano, M., Rea, N., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Ripken, J., Ritz, S., Romani, R. W., Sadrozinski, H. F. -W., Sander, A., Parkinson, P. M. Saz, Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Smith, D. A., Smith, P. D., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Strickman, M. S., Suson, D. J., Takahashi, H., Takahashi, T., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J. B., Thayer, J. G., Theureau, G., Thompson, D. J., Thorsett, S. E., Tibaldo, L., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Tramacere, A., Uchiyama, Y., Uehara, T., Usher, T. L., Vandenbroucke, J., Van Etten, A., Vasileiou, V., Vilchez, N., Vitale, V., Waite, A. P., Wang, P., Weltevrede, P., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., Yang, Z., Ylinen, T., & Ziegler, M.. Fermi-LAT Search for Pulsar Wind Nebulae around gamma-ray Pulsars. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/726/1/35.
Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Berenji, B., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bouvier, A., Bregeon, J., Brez, A., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Camilo, F., Caraveo, P. A., Casandjian, J. M., Cecchi, C., Çelik, Ö., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cognard, I., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Conrad, J., Dermer, C. D., de Angelis, A., de Luca, A., de Palma, F., Digel, S. W., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Dubois, R., Dumora, D., Favuzzi, C., Focke, W. B., Frailis, M., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Germani, S., Giglietto, N., Giommi, P., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Grove, J. E., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Hadasch, D., Hanabata, Y., Harding, A. K., Hayashi, K., Hays, E., Hobbs, G., Hughes, R. E., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, W. N., Johnston, S., Kamae, T., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Keith, M., Kerr, M., Knödlseder, J., Kramer, M., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Latronico, L., Lee, S. -H., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Lyne, A. G., Makeev, A., Marelli, M., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Mehault, J., Michelson, P. F., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nakamori, T., Naumann-Godo, M., Nolan, P. L., Noutsos, A., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Okumura, A., Ormes, J. F., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Parent, D., Pelassa, V., Pepe, M., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Ransom, S. M., Ray, P. S., Razzano, M., Rea, N., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Ripken, J., Ritz, S., Romani, R. W., Sadrozinski, H. F. -W., Sander, A., Parkinson, P. M. Saz, Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Smith, D. A., Smith, P. D., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Strickman, M. S., Suson, D. J., Takahashi, H., Takahashi, T., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J. B., Thayer, J. G., Theureau, G., Thompson, D. J., Thorsett, S. E., Tibaldo, L., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Tramacere, A., Uchiyama, Y., Uehara, T., Usher, T. L., Vandenbroucke, J., Van Etten, A., Vasileiou, V., Vilchez, N., Vitale, V., Waite, A. P., Wang, P., Weltevrede, P., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., Yang, Z., Ylinen, T., and Ziegler, M.. Mon . "Fermi-LAT Search for Pulsar Wind Nebulae around gamma-ray Pulsars". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/726/1/35. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1357270.
@article{osti_1357270,
title = {Fermi-LAT Search for Pulsar Wind Nebulae around gamma-ray Pulsars},
author = {Ackermann, M. and Ajello, M. and Baldini, L. and Ballet, J. and Barbiellini, G. and Bastieri, D. and Bechtol, K. and Bellazzini, R. and Berenji, B. and Bloom, E. D. and Bonamente, E. and Borgland, A. W. and Bouvier, A. and Bregeon, J. and Brez, A. and Brigida, M. and Bruel, P. and Buehler, R. and Buson, S. and Caliandro, G. A. and Cameron, R. A. and Camilo, F. and Caraveo, P. A. and Casandjian, J. M. and Cecchi, C. and Çelik, Ö. and Charles, E. and Chekhtman, A. and Cheung, C. C. and Chiang, J. and Ciprini, S. and Claus, R. and Cognard, I. and Cohen-Tanugi, J. and Conrad, J. and Dermer, C. D. and de Angelis, A. and de Luca, A. and de Palma, F. and Digel, S. W. and do Couto e Silva, E. and Drell, P. S. and Dubois, R. and Dumora, D. and Favuzzi, C. and Focke, W. B. and Frailis, M. and Fukazawa, Y. and Funk, S. and Fusco, P. and Gargano, F. and Germani, S. and Giglietto, N. and Giommi, P. and Giordano, F. and Giroletti, M. and Glanzman, T. and Godfrey, G. and Grenier, I. A. and Grondin, M. -H. and Grove, J. E. and Guillemot, L. and Guiriec, S. and Hadasch, D. and Hanabata, Y. and Harding, A. K. and Hayashi, K. and Hays, E. and Hobbs, G. and Hughes, R. E. and Jóhannesson, G. and Johnson, A. S. and Johnson, W. N. and Johnston, S. and Kamae, T. and Katagiri, H. and Kataoka, J. and Keith, M. and Kerr, M. and Knödlseder, J. and Kramer, M. and Kuss, M. and Lande, J. and Latronico, L. and Lee, S. -H. and Lemoine-Goumard, M. and Longo, F. and Loparco, F. and Lovellette, M. N. and Lubrano, P. and Lyne, A. G. and Makeev, A. and Marelli, M. and Mazziotta, M. N. and McEnery, J. E. and Mehault, J. and Michelson, P. F. and Mizuno, T. and Moiseev, A. A. and Monte, C. and Monzani, M. E. and Morselli, A. and Moskalenko, I. V. and Murgia, S. and Nakamori, T. and Naumann-Godo, M. and Nolan, P. L. and Noutsos, A. and Nuss, E. and Ohsugi, T. and Okumura, A. and Ormes, J. F. and Paneque, D. and Panetta, J. H. and Parent, D. and Pelassa, V. and Pepe, M. and Pesce-Rollins, M. and Piron, F. and Porter, T. A. and Rainò, S. and Rando, R. and Ransom, S. M. and Ray, P. S. and Razzano, M. and Rea, N. and Reimer, A. and Reimer, O. and Reposeur, T. and Ripken, J. and Ritz, S. and Romani, R. W. and Sadrozinski, H. F. -W. and Sander, A. and Parkinson, P. M. Saz and Sgrò, C. and Siskind, E. J. and Smith, D. A. and Smith, P. D. and Spandre, G. and Spinelli, P. and Strickman, M. S. and Suson, D. J. and Takahashi, H. and Takahashi, T. and Tanaka, T. and Thayer, J. B. and Thayer, J. G. and Theureau, G. and Thompson, D. J. and Thorsett, S. E. and Tibaldo, L. and Torres, D. F. and Tosti, G. and Tramacere, A. and Uchiyama, Y. and Uehara, T. and Usher, T. L. and Vandenbroucke, J. and Van Etten, A. and Vasileiou, V. and Vilchez, N. and Vitale, V. and Waite, A. P. and Wang, P. and Weltevrede, P. and Winer, B. L. and Wood, K. S. and Yang, Z. and Ylinen, T. and Ziegler, M.},
abstractNote = {The high sensitivity of the Fermi-LAT (Large Area Telescope) offers the first opportunity to study faint and extended GeV sources such as pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). After one year of observation the LAT detected and identified three PWNe: the Crab Nebula, Vela-X, and the PWN inside MSH 15-52. In the meantime, the list of LAT detected pulsars increased steadily. These pulsars are characterized by high energy loss rates ($\dot{E}$) from ~3 × 1033 erg s–1 to 5 × 1038 erg s–1 and are therefore likely to power a PWN. This paper summarizes the search for PWNe in the off-pulse windows of 54 LAT-detected pulsars using 16 months of survey observations. Ten sources show significant emission, seven of these likely being of magnetospheric origin. The detection of significant emission in the off-pulse interval offers new constraints on the γ-ray emitting regions in pulsar magnetospheres. The three other sources with significant emission are the Crab Nebula, Vela-X, and a new PWN candidate associated with the LAT pulsar PSR J1023–5746, coincident with the TeV source HESS J1023–575. Here, we further explore the association between the HESS and the Fermi source by modeling its spectral energy distribution. Lastly, flux upper limits derived for the 44 remaining sources are used to provide new constraints on famous PWNe that have been detected at keV and/or TeV energies.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/726/1/35},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
number = 1,
volume = 726,
place = {United States},
year = {2010},
month = {12}
}

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