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Title: Real-time x-ray studies of crystal growth modes during metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy of GaN on c- and m-plane single crystals

Non-polar orientations of III-nitride semiconductors have attracted significant interest due to their potential application in optoelectronic devices with enhanced efficiency. Using in-situ surface x-ray scattering during metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) of GaN on non-polar (m-plane) and polar (c-plane) orientations of single crystal substrates, we have observed the homoepitaxial growth modes as a function of temperature and growth rate. On the m-plane surface we observe all three growth modes (step-flow, layer-by-layer, and three-dimensional) as conditions are varied. In contrast, the +c-plane surface exhibits a direct cross over between step-flow and 3-D growth, with no layer-by-layer regime. The apparent activation energy of 2.8 ± 0.2 eV observed for the growth rate at the layer-by-layer to step-flow boundary on the m-plane surface is consistent with those observed for MOVPE growth of other III-V compounds, indicating a large critical nucleus size for islands.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [4] ;  [5]
  1. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Materials Science Division
  2. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Materials Science Division; Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Photon Sciences Directorate
  3. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Photon Sciences Directorate; Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Physical Sciences and Engineering Directorate
  4. AIXTRON, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States)
  5. Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-06CH11357
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Applied Physics Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 105; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 0003-6951
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Research Org:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE
OSTI Identifier:
1357038

Perret, Edith, Highland, M. J., Stephenson, G. B., Streiffer, S. K., Zapol, P., Fuoss, P. H., Munkholm, A., and Thompson, Carol. Real-time x-ray studies of crystal growth modes during metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy of GaN on c- and m-plane single crystals. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1063/1.4892349.
Perret, Edith, Highland, M. J., Stephenson, G. B., Streiffer, S. K., Zapol, P., Fuoss, P. H., Munkholm, A., & Thompson, Carol. Real-time x-ray studies of crystal growth modes during metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy of GaN on c- and m-plane single crystals. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4892349.
Perret, Edith, Highland, M. J., Stephenson, G. B., Streiffer, S. K., Zapol, P., Fuoss, P. H., Munkholm, A., and Thompson, Carol. 2014. "Real-time x-ray studies of crystal growth modes during metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy of GaN on c- and m-plane single crystals". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4892349. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1357038.
@article{osti_1357038,
title = {Real-time x-ray studies of crystal growth modes during metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy of GaN on c- and m-plane single crystals},
author = {Perret, Edith and Highland, M. J. and Stephenson, G. B. and Streiffer, S. K. and Zapol, P. and Fuoss, P. H. and Munkholm, A. and Thompson, Carol},
abstractNote = {Non-polar orientations of III-nitride semiconductors have attracted significant interest due to their potential application in optoelectronic devices with enhanced efficiency. Using in-situ surface x-ray scattering during metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) of GaN on non-polar (m-plane) and polar (c-plane) orientations of single crystal substrates, we have observed the homoepitaxial growth modes as a function of temperature and growth rate. On the m-plane surface we observe all three growth modes (step-flow, layer-by-layer, and three-dimensional) as conditions are varied. In contrast, the +c-plane surface exhibits a direct cross over between step-flow and 3-D growth, with no layer-by-layer regime. The apparent activation energy of 2.8 ± 0.2 eV observed for the growth rate at the layer-by-layer to step-flow boundary on the m-plane surface is consistent with those observed for MOVPE growth of other III-V compounds, indicating a large critical nucleus size for islands.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4892349},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 5,
volume = 105,
place = {United States},
year = {2014},
month = {8}
}