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Title: Process-Structure-Property Relationships for 316L Stainless Steel Fabricated by Additive Manufacturing and Its Implication for Component Engineering

We investigate the process-structure-property relationships for 316L stainless steel prototyping utilizing 3-D laser engineered net shaping (LENS), a commercial direct energy deposition additive manufacturing process. Our study concluded that the resultant physical metallurgy of 3-D LENS 316L prototypes is dictated by the interactive metallurgical reactions, during instantaneous powder feeding/melting, molten metal flow and liquid metal solidification. This study also showed 3-D LENS manufacturing is capable of building high strength and ductile 316L prototypes due to its fine cellular spacing from fast solidification cooling, and the well-fused epitaxial interfaces at metal flow trails and interpass boundaries. However, without further LENS process control and optimization, the deposits are vulnerable to localized hardness variation attributed to heterogeneous microstructure, i.e., the interpass heat-affected zone (HAZ) from repetitive thermal heating during successive layer depositions. Most significantly, the current deposits exhibit anisotropic tensile behavior, i.e., lower strain and/or premature interpass delamination parallel to build direction (axial). This anisotropic behavior is attributed to the presence of interpass HAZ, which coexists with flying feedstock inclusions and porosity from incomplete molten metal fusion. Our current observations and findings contribute to the scientific basis for future process control and optimization necessary for material property control and defect mitigation.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [2]
  1. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)
  2. Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
SAND-2017-4008
Journal ID: ISSN 1059-9630; PII: 480
Grant/Contract Number:
AC04-94AL85000
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Thermal Spray Technology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 26; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 1059-9630
Publisher:
Springer
Research Org:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 42 ENGINEERING; additive manufacturing; dendritic; LENS; porosity; stainless steel
OSTI Identifier:
1357021

Yang, Nancy, Yee, J., Zheng, B., Gaiser, K., Reynolds, T., Clemon, L., Lu, W. Y., Schoenung, J. M., and Lavernia, E. J.. Process-Structure-Property Relationships for 316L Stainless Steel Fabricated by Additive Manufacturing and Its Implication for Component Engineering. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1007/s11666-016-0480-y.
Yang, Nancy, Yee, J., Zheng, B., Gaiser, K., Reynolds, T., Clemon, L., Lu, W. Y., Schoenung, J. M., & Lavernia, E. J.. Process-Structure-Property Relationships for 316L Stainless Steel Fabricated by Additive Manufacturing and Its Implication for Component Engineering. United States. doi:10.1007/s11666-016-0480-y.
Yang, Nancy, Yee, J., Zheng, B., Gaiser, K., Reynolds, T., Clemon, L., Lu, W. Y., Schoenung, J. M., and Lavernia, E. J.. 2016. "Process-Structure-Property Relationships for 316L Stainless Steel Fabricated by Additive Manufacturing and Its Implication for Component Engineering". United States. doi:10.1007/s11666-016-0480-y. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1357021.
@article{osti_1357021,
title = {Process-Structure-Property Relationships for 316L Stainless Steel Fabricated by Additive Manufacturing and Its Implication for Component Engineering},
author = {Yang, Nancy and Yee, J. and Zheng, B. and Gaiser, K. and Reynolds, T. and Clemon, L. and Lu, W. Y. and Schoenung, J. M. and Lavernia, E. J.},
abstractNote = {We investigate the process-structure-property relationships for 316L stainless steel prototyping utilizing 3-D laser engineered net shaping (LENS), a commercial direct energy deposition additive manufacturing process. Our study concluded that the resultant physical metallurgy of 3-D LENS 316L prototypes is dictated by the interactive metallurgical reactions, during instantaneous powder feeding/melting, molten metal flow and liquid metal solidification. This study also showed 3-D LENS manufacturing is capable of building high strength and ductile 316L prototypes due to its fine cellular spacing from fast solidification cooling, and the well-fused epitaxial interfaces at metal flow trails and interpass boundaries. However, without further LENS process control and optimization, the deposits are vulnerable to localized hardness variation attributed to heterogeneous microstructure, i.e., the interpass heat-affected zone (HAZ) from repetitive thermal heating during successive layer depositions. Most significantly, the current deposits exhibit anisotropic tensile behavior, i.e., lower strain and/or premature interpass delamination parallel to build direction (axial). This anisotropic behavior is attributed to the presence of interpass HAZ, which coexists with flying feedstock inclusions and porosity from incomplete molten metal fusion. Our current observations and findings contribute to the scientific basis for future process control and optimization necessary for material property control and defect mitigation.},
doi = {10.1007/s11666-016-0480-y},
journal = {Journal of Thermal Spray Technology},
number = 4,
volume = 26,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {12}
}

Works referenced in this record:

Laser additive manufacturing of metallic components: materials, processes and mechanisms
journal, May 2012