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Title: Fermi large area telescope second source catalog

Here, we present the second catalog of high-energy γ-ray sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi), derived from data taken during the first 24 months of the science phase of the mission, which began on 2008 August 4. Source detection is based on the average flux over the 24 month period. The second Fermi-LAT catalog (2FGL) includes source location regions, defined in terms of elliptical fits to the 95% confidence regions and spectral fits in terms of power-law, exponentially cutoff power-law, or log-normal forms. Also included are flux measurements in five energy bands and light curves on monthly intervals for each source. Twelve sources in the catalog are modeled as spatially extended. Furthermore, we provide a detailed comparison of the results from this catalog with those from the first Fermi-LAT catalog (1FGL). Although the diffuse Galactic and isotropic models used in the 2FGL analysis are improved compared to the 1FGL catalog, we attach caution flags to 162 of the sources to indicate possible confusion with residual imperfections in the diffuse model. Finally, the 2FGL catalog contains 1873 sources detected and characterized in the 100 MeV to 100 GeVmore » range of which we consider 127 as being firmly identified and 1171 as being reliably associated with counterparts of known or likely γ-ray-producing source classes.« less
Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more »; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-76SF00515
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 199; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 0067-0049
Publisher:
American Astronomical Society
Research Org:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Contributing Orgs:
Fermi LAT Collaboration
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; catalogs; gamma rays: general
OSTI Identifier:
1356745

Nolan, P. L., Abdo, A. A., Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Allafort, A., Antolini, E., Atwood, W. B., Axelsson, M., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Belfiore, A., Bellazzini, R., Berenji, B., Bignami, G. F., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Bonnell, J., Borgland, A. W., Bottacini, E., Bouvier, A., Brandt, T. J., Bregeon, J., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Burnett, T. H., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Campana, R., Cañadas, B., Cannon, A., Caraveo, P. A., Casandjian, J. M., Cavazzuti, E., Ceccanti, M., Cecchi, C., Çelik, Ö., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Chipaux, R., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Cominsky, L. R., Conrad, J., Corbet, R., Cutini, S., D'Ammando, F., Davis, D. S., de Angelis, A., DeCesar, M. E., DeKlotz, M., De Luca, A., den Hartog, P. R., de Palma, F., Dermer, C. D., Digel, S. W., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Drlica-Wagner, A., Dubois, R., Dumora, D., Enoto, T., Escande, L., Fabiani, D., Falletti, L., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Fortin, P., Frailis, M., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Germani, S., Giebels, B., Giglietto, N., Giommi, P., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Grove, J. E., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Gustafsson, M., Hadasch, D., Hanabata, Y., Harding, A. K., Hayashida, M., Hays, E., Hill, A. B., Horan, D., Hou, X., Hughes, R. E., Iafrate, G., Itoh, R., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, R. P., Johnson, T. E., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, T. J., Kamae, T., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Katsuta, J., Kawai, N., Kerr, M., Knödlseder, J., Kocevski, D., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Landriu, D., Latronico, L., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Lionetto, A. M., Llena Garde, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Madejski, G. M., Marelli, M., Massaro, E., Mazziotta, M. N., McConville, W., McEnery, J. E., Mehault, J., Michelson, P. F., Minuti, M., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Mongelli, M., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nakamori, T., Naumann-Godo, M., Norris, J. P., Nuss, E., Nymark, T., Ohno, M., Ohsugi, T., Okumura, A., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Ozaki, M., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Parent, D., Perkins, J. S., Pesce-Rollins, M., Pierbattista, M., Pinchera, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Racusin, J. L., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Ritz, S., Rochester, L. S., Romani, R. W., Roth, M., Rousseau, R., Ryde, F., Sadrozinski, H. F. -W., Salvetti, D., Sanchez, D. A., Saz Parkinson, P. M., Sbarra, C., Scargle, J. D., Schalk, T. L., Sgrò, C., Shaw, M. S., Shrader, C., Siskind, E. J., Smith, D. A., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Stephens, T. E., Strickman, M. S., Suson, D. J., Tajima, H., Takahashi, H., Takahashi, T., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J. G., Thayer, J. B., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Tibolla, O., Tinebra, F., Tinivella, M., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Troja, E., Uchiyama, Y., Vandenbroucke, J., Van Etten, A., Van Klaveren, B., Vasileiou, V., Vianello, G., Vitale, V., Waite, A. P., Wallace, E., Wang, P., Werner, M., Winer, B. L., Wood, D. L., Wood, K. S., Wood, M., Yang, Z., and Zimmer, S.. Fermi large area telescope second source catalog. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1088/0067-0049/199/2/31.
Nolan, P. L., Abdo, A. A., Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Allafort, A., Antolini, E., Atwood, W. B., Axelsson, M., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Belfiore, A., Bellazzini, R., Berenji, B., Bignami, G. F., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Bonnell, J., Borgland, A. W., Bottacini, E., Bouvier, A., Brandt, T. J., Bregeon, J., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Burnett, T. H., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Campana, R., Cañadas, B., Cannon, A., Caraveo, P. A., Casandjian, J. M., Cavazzuti, E., Ceccanti, M., Cecchi, C., Çelik, Ö., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Chipaux, R., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Cominsky, L. R., Conrad, J., Corbet, R., Cutini, S., D'Ammando, F., Davis, D. S., de Angelis, A., DeCesar, M. E., DeKlotz, M., De Luca, A., den Hartog, P. R., de Palma, F., Dermer, C. D., Digel, S. W., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Drlica-Wagner, A., Dubois, R., Dumora, D., Enoto, T., Escande, L., Fabiani, D., Falletti, L., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Fortin, P., Frailis, M., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Germani, S., Giebels, B., Giglietto, N., Giommi, P., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Grove, J. E., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Gustafsson, M., Hadasch, D., Hanabata, Y., Harding, A. K., Hayashida, M., Hays, E., Hill, A. B., Horan, D., Hou, X., Hughes, R. E., Iafrate, G., Itoh, R., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, R. P., Johnson, T. E., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, T. J., Kamae, T., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Katsuta, J., Kawai, N., Kerr, M., Knödlseder, J., Kocevski, D., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Landriu, D., Latronico, L., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Lionetto, A. M., Llena Garde, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Madejski, G. M., Marelli, M., Massaro, E., Mazziotta, M. N., McConville, W., McEnery, J. E., Mehault, J., Michelson, P. F., Minuti, M., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Mongelli, M., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nakamori, T., Naumann-Godo, M., Norris, J. P., Nuss, E., Nymark, T., Ohno, M., Ohsugi, T., Okumura, A., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Ozaki, M., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Parent, D., Perkins, J. S., Pesce-Rollins, M., Pierbattista, M., Pinchera, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Racusin, J. L., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Ritz, S., Rochester, L. S., Romani, R. W., Roth, M., Rousseau, R., Ryde, F., Sadrozinski, H. F. -W., Salvetti, D., Sanchez, D. A., Saz Parkinson, P. M., Sbarra, C., Scargle, J. D., Schalk, T. L., Sgrò, C., Shaw, M. S., Shrader, C., Siskind, E. J., Smith, D. A., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Stephens, T. E., Strickman, M. S., Suson, D. J., Tajima, H., Takahashi, H., Takahashi, T., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J. G., Thayer, J. B., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Tibolla, O., Tinebra, F., Tinivella, M., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Troja, E., Uchiyama, Y., Vandenbroucke, J., Van Etten, A., Van Klaveren, B., Vasileiou, V., Vianello, G., Vitale, V., Waite, A. P., Wallace, E., Wang, P., Werner, M., Winer, B. L., Wood, D. L., Wood, K. S., Wood, M., Yang, Z., & Zimmer, S.. Fermi large area telescope second source catalog. United States. doi:10.1088/0067-0049/199/2/31.
Nolan, P. L., Abdo, A. A., Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Allafort, A., Antolini, E., Atwood, W. B., Axelsson, M., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Belfiore, A., Bellazzini, R., Berenji, B., Bignami, G. F., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Bonnell, J., Borgland, A. W., Bottacini, E., Bouvier, A., Brandt, T. J., Bregeon, J., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Burnett, T. H., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Campana, R., Cañadas, B., Cannon, A., Caraveo, P. A., Casandjian, J. M., Cavazzuti, E., Ceccanti, M., Cecchi, C., Çelik, Ö., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Chipaux, R., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Cominsky, L. R., Conrad, J., Corbet, R., Cutini, S., D'Ammando, F., Davis, D. S., de Angelis, A., DeCesar, M. E., DeKlotz, M., De Luca, A., den Hartog, P. R., de Palma, F., Dermer, C. D., Digel, S. W., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Drlica-Wagner, A., Dubois, R., Dumora, D., Enoto, T., Escande, L., Fabiani, D., Falletti, L., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Fortin, P., Frailis, M., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Germani, S., Giebels, B., Giglietto, N., Giommi, P., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Grove, J. E., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Gustafsson, M., Hadasch, D., Hanabata, Y., Harding, A. K., Hayashida, M., Hays, E., Hill, A. B., Horan, D., Hou, X., Hughes, R. E., Iafrate, G., Itoh, R., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, R. P., Johnson, T. E., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, T. J., Kamae, T., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Katsuta, J., Kawai, N., Kerr, M., Knödlseder, J., Kocevski, D., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Landriu, D., Latronico, L., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Lionetto, A. M., Llena Garde, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Madejski, G. M., Marelli, M., Massaro, E., Mazziotta, M. N., McConville, W., McEnery, J. E., Mehault, J., Michelson, P. F., Minuti, M., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Mongelli, M., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nakamori, T., Naumann-Godo, M., Norris, J. P., Nuss, E., Nymark, T., Ohno, M., Ohsugi, T., Okumura, A., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Ozaki, M., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Parent, D., Perkins, J. S., Pesce-Rollins, M., Pierbattista, M., Pinchera, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Racusin, J. L., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Ritz, S., Rochester, L. S., Romani, R. W., Roth, M., Rousseau, R., Ryde, F., Sadrozinski, H. F. -W., Salvetti, D., Sanchez, D. A., Saz Parkinson, P. M., Sbarra, C., Scargle, J. D., Schalk, T. L., Sgrò, C., Shaw, M. S., Shrader, C., Siskind, E. J., Smith, D. A., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Stephens, T. E., Strickman, M. S., Suson, D. J., Tajima, H., Takahashi, H., Takahashi, T., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J. G., Thayer, J. B., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Tibolla, O., Tinebra, F., Tinivella, M., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Troja, E., Uchiyama, Y., Vandenbroucke, J., Van Etten, A., Van Klaveren, B., Vasileiou, V., Vianello, G., Vitale, V., Waite, A. P., Wallace, E., Wang, P., Werner, M., Winer, B. L., Wood, D. L., Wood, K. S., Wood, M., Yang, Z., and Zimmer, S.. 2012. "Fermi large area telescope second source catalog". United States. doi:10.1088/0067-0049/199/2/31. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1356745.
@article{osti_1356745,
title = {Fermi large area telescope second source catalog},
author = {Nolan, P. L. and Abdo, A. A. and Ackermann, M. and Ajello, M. and Allafort, A. and Antolini, E. and Atwood, W. B. and Axelsson, M. and Baldini, L. and Ballet, J. and Barbiellini, G. and Bastieri, D. and Bechtol, K. and Belfiore, A. and Bellazzini, R. and Berenji, B. and Bignami, G. F. and Blandford, R. D. and Bloom, E. D. and Bonamente, E. and Bonnell, J. and Borgland, A. W. and Bottacini, E. and Bouvier, A. and Brandt, T. J. and Bregeon, J. and Brigida, M. and Bruel, P. and Buehler, R. and Burnett, T. H. and Buson, S. and Caliandro, G. A. and Cameron, R. A. and Campana, R. and Cañadas, B. and Cannon, A. and Caraveo, P. A. and Casandjian, J. M. and Cavazzuti, E. and Ceccanti, M. and Cecchi, C. and Çelik, Ö. and Charles, E. and Chekhtman, A. and Cheung, C. C. and Chiang, J. and Chipaux, R. and Ciprini, S. and Claus, R. and Cohen-Tanugi, J. and Cominsky, L. R. and Conrad, J. and Corbet, R. and Cutini, S. and D'Ammando, F. and Davis, D. S. and de Angelis, A. and DeCesar, M. E. and DeKlotz, M. and De Luca, A. and den Hartog, P. R. and de Palma, F. and Dermer, C. D. and Digel, S. W. and do Couto e Silva, E. and Drell, P. S. and Drlica-Wagner, A. and Dubois, R. and Dumora, D. and Enoto, T. and Escande, L. and Fabiani, D. and Falletti, L. and Favuzzi, C. and Fegan, S. J. and Ferrara, E. C. and Focke, W. B. and Fortin, P. and Frailis, M. and Fukazawa, Y. and Funk, S. and Fusco, P. and Gargano, F. and Gasparrini, D. and Gehrels, N. and Germani, S. and Giebels, B. and Giglietto, N. and Giommi, P. and Giordano, F. and Giroletti, M. and Glanzman, T. and Godfrey, G. and Grenier, I. A. and Grondin, M. -H. and Grove, J. E. and Guillemot, L. and Guiriec, S. and Gustafsson, M. and Hadasch, D. and Hanabata, Y. and Harding, A. K. and Hayashida, M. and Hays, E. and Hill, A. B. and Horan, D. and Hou, X. and Hughes, R. E. and Iafrate, G. and Itoh, R. and Jóhannesson, G. and Johnson, R. P. and Johnson, T. E. and Johnson, A. S. and Johnson, T. J. and Kamae, T. and Katagiri, H. and Kataoka, J. and Katsuta, J. and Kawai, N. and Kerr, M. and Knödlseder, J. and Kocevski, D. and Kuss, M. and Lande, J. and Landriu, D. and Latronico, L. and Lemoine-Goumard, M. and Lionetto, A. M. and Llena Garde, M. and Longo, F. and Loparco, F. and Lott, B. and Lovellette, M. N. and Lubrano, P. and Madejski, G. M. and Marelli, M. and Massaro, E. and Mazziotta, M. N. and McConville, W. and McEnery, J. E. and Mehault, J. and Michelson, P. F. and Minuti, M. and Mitthumsiri, W. and Mizuno, T. and Moiseev, A. A. and Mongelli, M. and Monte, C. and Monzani, M. E. and Morselli, A. and Moskalenko, I. V. and Murgia, S. and Nakamori, T. and Naumann-Godo, M. and Norris, J. P. and Nuss, E. and Nymark, T. and Ohno, M. and Ohsugi, T. and Okumura, A. and Omodei, N. and Orlando, E. and Ormes, J. F. and Ozaki, M. and Paneque, D. and Panetta, J. H. and Parent, D. and Perkins, J. S. and Pesce-Rollins, M. and Pierbattista, M. and Pinchera, M. and Piron, F. and Pivato, G. and Porter, T. A. and Racusin, J. L. and Rainò, S. and Rando, R. and Razzano, M. and Razzaque, S. and Reimer, A. and Reimer, O. and Reposeur, T. and Ritz, S. and Rochester, L. S. and Romani, R. W. and Roth, M. and Rousseau, R. and Ryde, F. and Sadrozinski, H. F. -W. and Salvetti, D. and Sanchez, D. A. and Saz Parkinson, P. M. and Sbarra, C. and Scargle, J. D. and Schalk, T. L. and Sgrò, C. and Shaw, M. S. and Shrader, C. and Siskind, E. J. and Smith, D. A. and Spandre, G. and Spinelli, P. and Stephens, T. E. and Strickman, M. S. and Suson, D. J. and Tajima, H. and Takahashi, H. and Takahashi, T. and Tanaka, T. and Thayer, J. G. and Thayer, J. B. and Thompson, D. J. and Tibaldo, L. and Tibolla, O. and Tinebra, F. and Tinivella, M. and Torres, D. F. and Tosti, G. and Troja, E. and Uchiyama, Y. and Vandenbroucke, J. and Van Etten, A. and Van Klaveren, B. and Vasileiou, V. and Vianello, G. and Vitale, V. and Waite, A. P. and Wallace, E. and Wang, P. and Werner, M. and Winer, B. L. and Wood, D. L. and Wood, K. S. and Wood, M. and Yang, Z. and Zimmer, S.},
abstractNote = {Here, we present the second catalog of high-energy γ-ray sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi), derived from data taken during the first 24 months of the science phase of the mission, which began on 2008 August 4. Source detection is based on the average flux over the 24 month period. The second Fermi-LAT catalog (2FGL) includes source location regions, defined in terms of elliptical fits to the 95% confidence regions and spectral fits in terms of power-law, exponentially cutoff power-law, or log-normal forms. Also included are flux measurements in five energy bands and light curves on monthly intervals for each source. Twelve sources in the catalog are modeled as spatially extended. Furthermore, we provide a detailed comparison of the results from this catalog with those from the first Fermi-LAT catalog (1FGL). Although the diffuse Galactic and isotropic models used in the 2FGL analysis are improved compared to the 1FGL catalog, we attach caution flags to 162 of the sources to indicate possible confusion with residual imperfections in the diffuse model. Finally, the 2FGL catalog contains 1873 sources detected and characterized in the 100 MeV to 100 GeV range of which we consider 127 as being firmly identified and 1171 as being reliably associated with counterparts of known or likely γ-ray-producing source classes.},
doi = {10.1088/0067-0049/199/2/31},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series},
number = 2,
volume = 199,
place = {United States},
year = {2012},
month = {3}
}