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Title: A statistical approach to recognize source classes for unassociated sources in the first Fermi-LAT catalog

The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) First Source Catalog (1FGL) provided spatial, spectral, and temporal properties for a large number of γ-ray sources using a uniform analysis method. After correlating with the most-complete catalogs of source types known to emit γ rays, 630 of these sources are "unassociated" (i.e., have no obvious counterparts at other wavelengths).We employ two statistical analyses of the primary γ-ray characteristics for these unassociated sources in an effort to correlate their γ-ray properties with the active galactic nucleus (AGN) and pulsar populations in 1FGL. Based on the correlation results, we classify 221 AGN-like and 134 pulsar-like sources in the 1FGL unassociated sources. Furthermore, the results of these source "classifications" appear to match the expected source distributions, especially at high Galactic latitudes. While useful for planning future multiwavelength follow-up observations, these analyses use limited inputs, and their predictions should not be considered equivalent to "probable source classes" for these sources. We also discuss multiwavelength results and catalog cross-correlations to date, and provide new source associations for 229 Fermi-LAT sources that had no association listed in the 1FGL catalog. By validating the source classifications against these new associations, we find that the new association matches the predicted sourcemore » class in ~80% of the sources.« less
Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more »; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-76SF00515
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astrophysical Journal
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 753; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-637X
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Research Org:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Contributing Orgs:
Fermi LAT Collaboration
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; catalogs; galaxies: active; gamma rays: general; methods: statistical; pulsars: general
OSTI Identifier:
1356722

Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Allafort, A., Antolini, E., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bellazzini, R., Berenji, B., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bouvier, A., Brandt, T. J., Bregeon, J., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Burnett, T. H., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caraveo, P. A., Casandjian, J. M., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Çelik, Ö., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Chen, A. W., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Conrad, J., Cutini, S., de Angelis, A., DeCesar, M. E., De Luca, A., de Palma, F., Dermer, C. D., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Drlica-Wagner, A., Dubois, R., Enoto, T., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Fortin, P., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Germani, S., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Grove, J. E., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Gustafsson, M., Hadasch, D., Hanabata, Y., Harding, A. K., Hayashida, M., Hays, E., Healey, S. E., Hill, A. B., Horan, D., Hou, X., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, T. J., Kamae, T., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Kerr, M., Knödlseder, J., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Latronico, L., Lee, S. -H., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Madejski, G. M., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Mehault, J., Michelson, P. F., Mignani, R. P., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nakamori, T., Naumann-Godo, M., Nolan, P. L., Norris, J. P., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Okumura, A., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Ozaki, M., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Parent, D., Pelassa, V., Pesce-Rollins, M., Pierbattista, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Ray, P. S., Razzano, M., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Romani, R. W., Sadrozinski, H. F. -W., Salvetti, D., Parkinson, P. M. Saz, Schalk, T. L., Sgrò, C., Shaw, M. S., Siskind, E. J., Smith, P. D., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Suson, D. J., Takahashi, H., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J. G., Thayer, J. B., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Tibolla, O., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Tramacere, A., Troja, E., Usher, T. L., Vandenbroucke, J., Vasileiou, V., Vianello, G., Vilchez, N., Vitale, V., Waite, A. P., Wallace, E., Wang, P., Winer, B. L., Wolff, M. T., Wood, D. L., Wood, K. S., Yang, Z., and Zimmer, S.. A statistical approach to recognize source classes for unassociated sources in the first Fermi-LAT catalog. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/753/1/83.
Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Allafort, A., Antolini, E., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bellazzini, R., Berenji, B., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bouvier, A., Brandt, T. J., Bregeon, J., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Burnett, T. H., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caraveo, P. A., Casandjian, J. M., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Çelik, Ö., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Chen, A. W., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Conrad, J., Cutini, S., de Angelis, A., DeCesar, M. E., De Luca, A., de Palma, F., Dermer, C. D., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Drlica-Wagner, A., Dubois, R., Enoto, T., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Fortin, P., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Germani, S., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Grove, J. E., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Gustafsson, M., Hadasch, D., Hanabata, Y., Harding, A. K., Hayashida, M., Hays, E., Healey, S. E., Hill, A. B., Horan, D., Hou, X., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, T. J., Kamae, T., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Kerr, M., Knödlseder, J., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Latronico, L., Lee, S. -H., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Madejski, G. M., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Mehault, J., Michelson, P. F., Mignani, R. P., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nakamori, T., Naumann-Godo, M., Nolan, P. L., Norris, J. P., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Okumura, A., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Ozaki, M., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Parent, D., Pelassa, V., Pesce-Rollins, M., Pierbattista, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Ray, P. S., Razzano, M., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Romani, R. W., Sadrozinski, H. F. -W., Salvetti, D., Parkinson, P. M. Saz, Schalk, T. L., Sgrò, C., Shaw, M. S., Siskind, E. J., Smith, P. D., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Suson, D. J., Takahashi, H., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J. G., Thayer, J. B., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Tibolla, O., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Tramacere, A., Troja, E., Usher, T. L., Vandenbroucke, J., Vasileiou, V., Vianello, G., Vilchez, N., Vitale, V., Waite, A. P., Wallace, E., Wang, P., Winer, B. L., Wolff, M. T., Wood, D. L., Wood, K. S., Yang, Z., & Zimmer, S.. A statistical approach to recognize source classes for unassociated sources in the first Fermi-LAT catalog. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/753/1/83.
Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Allafort, A., Antolini, E., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bellazzini, R., Berenji, B., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bouvier, A., Brandt, T. J., Bregeon, J., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Burnett, T. H., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caraveo, P. A., Casandjian, J. M., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Çelik, Ö., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Chen, A. W., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Conrad, J., Cutini, S., de Angelis, A., DeCesar, M. E., De Luca, A., de Palma, F., Dermer, C. D., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Drlica-Wagner, A., Dubois, R., Enoto, T., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Fortin, P., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Germani, S., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Grove, J. E., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Gustafsson, M., Hadasch, D., Hanabata, Y., Harding, A. K., Hayashida, M., Hays, E., Healey, S. E., Hill, A. B., Horan, D., Hou, X., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, T. J., Kamae, T., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Kerr, M., Knödlseder, J., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Latronico, L., Lee, S. -H., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Madejski, G. M., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Mehault, J., Michelson, P. F., Mignani, R. P., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nakamori, T., Naumann-Godo, M., Nolan, P. L., Norris, J. P., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Okumura, A., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Ozaki, M., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Parent, D., Pelassa, V., Pesce-Rollins, M., Pierbattista, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Ray, P. S., Razzano, M., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Romani, R. W., Sadrozinski, H. F. -W., Salvetti, D., Parkinson, P. M. Saz, Schalk, T. L., Sgrò, C., Shaw, M. S., Siskind, E. J., Smith, P. D., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Suson, D. J., Takahashi, H., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J. G., Thayer, J. B., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Tibolla, O., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Tramacere, A., Troja, E., Usher, T. L., Vandenbroucke, J., Vasileiou, V., Vianello, G., Vilchez, N., Vitale, V., Waite, A. P., Wallace, E., Wang, P., Winer, B. L., Wolff, M. T., Wood, D. L., Wood, K. S., Yang, Z., and Zimmer, S.. 2012. "A statistical approach to recognize source classes for unassociated sources in the first Fermi-LAT catalog". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/753/1/83. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1356722.
@article{osti_1356722,
title = {A statistical approach to recognize source classes for unassociated sources in the first Fermi-LAT catalog},
author = {Ackermann, M. and Ajello, M. and Allafort, A. and Antolini, E. and Baldini, L. and Ballet, J. and Barbiellini, G. and Bastieri, D. and Bellazzini, R. and Berenji, B. and Blandford, R. D. and Bloom, E. D. and Bonamente, E. and Borgland, A. W. and Bouvier, A. and Brandt, T. J. and Bregeon, J. and Brigida, M. and Bruel, P. and Buehler, R. and Burnett, T. H. and Buson, S. and Caliandro, G. A. and Cameron, R. A. and Caraveo, P. A. and Casandjian, J. M. and Cavazzuti, E. and Cecchi, C. and Çelik, Ö. and Charles, E. and Chekhtman, A. and Chen, A. W. and Cheung, C. C. and Chiang, J. and Ciprini, S. and Claus, R. and Cohen-Tanugi, J. and Conrad, J. and Cutini, S. and de Angelis, A. and DeCesar, M. E. and De Luca, A. and de Palma, F. and Dermer, C. D. and do Couto e Silva, E. and Drell, P. S. and Drlica-Wagner, A. and Dubois, R. and Enoto, T. and Favuzzi, C. and Fegan, S. J. and Ferrara, E. C. and Focke, W. B. and Fortin, P. and Fukazawa, Y. and Funk, S. and Fusco, P. and Gargano, F. and Gasparrini, D. and Gehrels, N. and Germani, S. and Giglietto, N. and Giordano, F. and Giroletti, M. and Glanzman, T. and Godfrey, G. and Grenier, I. A. and Grondin, M. -H. and Grove, J. E. and Guillemot, L. and Guiriec, S. and Gustafsson, M. and Hadasch, D. and Hanabata, Y. and Harding, A. K. and Hayashida, M. and Hays, E. and Healey, S. E. and Hill, A. B. and Horan, D. and Hou, X. and Jóhannesson, G. and Johnson, A. S. and Johnson, T. J. and Kamae, T. and Katagiri, H. and Kataoka, J. and Kerr, M. and Knödlseder, J. and Kuss, M. and Lande, J. and Latronico, L. and Lee, S. -H. and Lemoine-Goumard, M. and Longo, F. and Loparco, F. and Lott, B. and Lovellette, M. N. and Lubrano, P. and Madejski, G. M. and Mazziotta, M. N. and McEnery, J. E. and Mehault, J. and Michelson, P. F. and Mignani, R. P. and Mitthumsiri, W. and Mizuno, T. and Monte, C. and Monzani, M. E. and Morselli, A. and Moskalenko, I. V. and Murgia, S. and Nakamori, T. and Naumann-Godo, M. and Nolan, P. L. and Norris, J. P. and Nuss, E. and Ohsugi, T. and Okumura, A. and Omodei, N. and Orlando, E. and Ormes, J. F. and Ozaki, M. and Paneque, D. and Panetta, J. H. and Parent, D. and Pelassa, V. and Pesce-Rollins, M. and Pierbattista, M. and Piron, F. and Pivato, G. and Porter, T. A. and Rainò, S. and Rando, R. and Ray, P. S. and Razzano, M. and Reimer, A. and Reimer, O. and Reposeur, T. and Romani, R. W. and Sadrozinski, H. F. -W. and Salvetti, D. and Parkinson, P. M. Saz and Schalk, T. L. and Sgrò, C. and Shaw, M. S. and Siskind, E. J. and Smith, P. D. and Spandre, G. and Spinelli, P. and Suson, D. J. and Takahashi, H. and Tanaka, T. and Thayer, J. G. and Thayer, J. B. and Thompson, D. J. and Tibaldo, L. and Tibolla, O. and Torres, D. F. and Tosti, G. and Tramacere, A. and Troja, E. and Usher, T. L. and Vandenbroucke, J. and Vasileiou, V. and Vianello, G. and Vilchez, N. and Vitale, V. and Waite, A. P. and Wallace, E. and Wang, P. and Winer, B. L. and Wolff, M. T. and Wood, D. L. and Wood, K. S. and Yang, Z. and Zimmer, S.},
abstractNote = {The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) First Source Catalog (1FGL) provided spatial, spectral, and temporal properties for a large number of γ-ray sources using a uniform analysis method. After correlating with the most-complete catalogs of source types known to emit γ rays, 630 of these sources are "unassociated" (i.e., have no obvious counterparts at other wavelengths).We employ two statistical analyses of the primary γ-ray characteristics for these unassociated sources in an effort to correlate their γ-ray properties with the active galactic nucleus (AGN) and pulsar populations in 1FGL. Based on the correlation results, we classify 221 AGN-like and 134 pulsar-like sources in the 1FGL unassociated sources. Furthermore, the results of these source "classifications" appear to match the expected source distributions, especially at high Galactic latitudes. While useful for planning future multiwavelength follow-up observations, these analyses use limited inputs, and their predictions should not be considered equivalent to "probable source classes" for these sources. We also discuss multiwavelength results and catalog cross-correlations to date, and provide new source associations for 229 Fermi-LAT sources that had no association listed in the 1FGL catalog. By validating the source classifications against these new associations, we find that the new association matches the predicted source class in ~80% of the sources.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/753/1/83},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
number = 1,
volume = 753,
place = {United States},
year = {2012},
month = {6}
}