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Title: Constraining the high-energy emission from gamma-ray bursts with Fermi

Abstract

Here, we examine 288 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope's Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) that fell within the field of view of Fermi's Large Area Telescope (LAT) during the first 2.5 years of observations, which showed no evidence for emission above 100 MeV. We report the photon flux upper limits in the 0.1-10 GeV range during the prompt emission phase as well as for fixed 30 s and 100 s integrations starting from the trigger time for each burst. We also compare these limits with the fluxes that would be expected from extrapolations of spectral fits presented in the first GBM spectral catalog and infer that roughly half of the GBM-detected bursts either require spectral breaks between the GBM and LAT energy bands or have intrinsically steeper spectra above the peak of the νF ν spectra (E pk). In order to distinguish between these two scenarios, we perform joint GBM and LAT spectral fits to the 30 brightest GBM-detected bursts and find that a majority of these bursts are indeed softer above E pk than would be inferred from fitting the GBM data alone. Approximately 20% of this spectroscopic subsample show statistically significant evidence for amore » cutoff in their high-energy spectra, which if assumed to be due to γγ attenuation, places limits on the maximum Lorentz factor associated with the relativistic outflow producing this emission. Furthermore, all of these latter bursts have maximum Lorentz factor estimates that are well below the minimum Lorentz factors calculated for LAT-detected GRBs, revealing a wide distribution in the bulk Lorentz factor of GRB outflows and indicating that LAT-detected bursts may represent the high end of this distribution.« less

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
Contributing Org.:
The Fermi Large Area Telescope Team; The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor Team
OSTI Identifier:
1356715
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astrophysical Journal
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 754; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-637X
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; gamma-ray burst: general; gamma rays: general

Citation Formats

Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Baldini, L., Barbiellini, G., Baring, M. G., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bottacini, E., Bouvier, A., Brigida, M., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Cecchi, C., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Cutini, S., D'Ammando, F., de Palma, F., Dermer, C. D., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Drlica-Wagner, A., Favuzzi, C., Fukazawa, Y., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Germani, S., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Granot, J., Grenier, I. A., Grove, J. E., Hadasch, D., Hanabata, Y., Harding, A. K., Hays, E., Horan, D., Jóhannesson, G., Kataoka, J., Knödlseder, J., Kocevski, D., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J., McGlynn, S., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Monzani, M. E., Moretti, E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Naumann-Godo, M., Norris, J. P., Nuss, E., Nymark, T., Ohsugi, T., Okumura, A., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Panetta, J. H., Parent, D., Pelassa, V., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Racusin, J. L., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Ritz, S., Ryde, F., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Sonbas, E., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Stamatikos, M., Stawarz, Łukasz, Suson, D. J., Takahashi, H., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J. G., Thayer, J. B., Tibaldo, L., Tinivella, M., Tosti, G., Uehara, T., Vandenbroucke, J., Vasileiou, V., Vianello, G., Vitale, V., Waite, A. P., Connaughton, V., Briggs, M. S., Guirec, S., Goldstein, A., Burgess, J. M., Bhat, P. N., Bissaldi, E., Camero-Arranz, A., Fishman, J., Fitzpatrick, G., Foley, S., Gruber, D., Jenke, P., Kippen, R. M., Kouveliotou, C., McBreen, S., Meegan, C., Paciesas, W. S., Preece, R., Rau, A., Tierney, D., van der Horst, A. J., von Kienlin, A., Wilson-Hodge, C., and Xiong, S. Constraining the high-energy emission from gamma-ray bursts with Fermi. United States: N. p., 2012. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/754/2/121.
Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Baldini, L., Barbiellini, G., Baring, M. G., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bottacini, E., Bouvier, A., Brigida, M., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Cecchi, C., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Cutini, S., D'Ammando, F., de Palma, F., Dermer, C. D., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Drlica-Wagner, A., Favuzzi, C., Fukazawa, Y., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Germani, S., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Granot, J., Grenier, I. A., Grove, J. E., Hadasch, D., Hanabata, Y., Harding, A. K., Hays, E., Horan, D., Jóhannesson, G., Kataoka, J., Knödlseder, J., Kocevski, D., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J., McGlynn, S., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Monzani, M. E., Moretti, E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Naumann-Godo, M., Norris, J. P., Nuss, E., Nymark, T., Ohsugi, T., Okumura, A., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Panetta, J. H., Parent, D., Pelassa, V., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Racusin, J. L., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Ritz, S., Ryde, F., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Sonbas, E., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Stamatikos, M., Stawarz, Łukasz, Suson, D. J., Takahashi, H., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J. G., Thayer, J. B., Tibaldo, L., Tinivella, M., Tosti, G., Uehara, T., Vandenbroucke, J., Vasileiou, V., Vianello, G., Vitale, V., Waite, A. P., Connaughton, V., Briggs, M. S., Guirec, S., Goldstein, A., Burgess, J. M., Bhat, P. N., Bissaldi, E., Camero-Arranz, A., Fishman, J., Fitzpatrick, G., Foley, S., Gruber, D., Jenke, P., Kippen, R. M., Kouveliotou, C., McBreen, S., Meegan, C., Paciesas, W. S., Preece, R., Rau, A., Tierney, D., van der Horst, A. J., von Kienlin, A., Wilson-Hodge, C., & Xiong, S. Constraining the high-energy emission from gamma-ray bursts with Fermi. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/754/2/121.
Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Baldini, L., Barbiellini, G., Baring, M. G., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bottacini, E., Bouvier, A., Brigida, M., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Cecchi, C., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Cutini, S., D'Ammando, F., de Palma, F., Dermer, C. D., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Drlica-Wagner, A., Favuzzi, C., Fukazawa, Y., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Germani, S., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Granot, J., Grenier, I. A., Grove, J. E., Hadasch, D., Hanabata, Y., Harding, A. K., Hays, E., Horan, D., Jóhannesson, G., Kataoka, J., Knödlseder, J., Kocevski, D., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J., McGlynn, S., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Monzani, M. E., Moretti, E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Naumann-Godo, M., Norris, J. P., Nuss, E., Nymark, T., Ohsugi, T., Okumura, A., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Panetta, J. H., Parent, D., Pelassa, V., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Racusin, J. L., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Ritz, S., Ryde, F., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Sonbas, E., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Stamatikos, M., Stawarz, Łukasz, Suson, D. J., Takahashi, H., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J. G., Thayer, J. B., Tibaldo, L., Tinivella, M., Tosti, G., Uehara, T., Vandenbroucke, J., Vasileiou, V., Vianello, G., Vitale, V., Waite, A. P., Connaughton, V., Briggs, M. S., Guirec, S., Goldstein, A., Burgess, J. M., Bhat, P. N., Bissaldi, E., Camero-Arranz, A., Fishman, J., Fitzpatrick, G., Foley, S., Gruber, D., Jenke, P., Kippen, R. M., Kouveliotou, C., McBreen, S., Meegan, C., Paciesas, W. S., Preece, R., Rau, A., Tierney, D., van der Horst, A. J., von Kienlin, A., Wilson-Hodge, C., and Xiong, S. Tue . "Constraining the high-energy emission from gamma-ray bursts with Fermi". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/754/2/121. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1356715.
@article{osti_1356715,
title = {Constraining the high-energy emission from gamma-ray bursts with Fermi},
author = {Ackermann, M. and Ajello, M. and Baldini, L. and Barbiellini, G. and Baring, M. G. and Bechtol, K. and Bellazzini, R. and Blandford, R. D. and Bloom, E. D. and Bonamente, E. and Borgland, A. W. and Bottacini, E. and Bouvier, A. and Brigida, M. and Buehler, R. and Buson, S. and Caliandro, G. A. and Cameron, R. A. and Cecchi, C. and Charles, E. and Chekhtman, A. and Chiang, J. and Ciprini, S. and Claus, R. and Cohen-Tanugi, J. and Cutini, S. and D'Ammando, F. and de Palma, F. and Dermer, C. D. and do Couto e Silva, E. and Drell, P. S. and Drlica-Wagner, A. and Favuzzi, C. and Fukazawa, Y. and Fusco, P. and Gargano, F. and Gasparrini, D. and Gehrels, N. and Germani, S. and Giglietto, N. and Giordano, F. and Giroletti, M. and Glanzman, T. and Granot, J. and Grenier, I. A. and Grove, J. E. and Hadasch, D. and Hanabata, Y. and Harding, A. K. and Hays, E. and Horan, D. and Jóhannesson, G. and Kataoka, J. and Knödlseder, J. and Kocevski, D. and Kuss, M. and Lande, J. and Longo, F. and Loparco, F. and Lovellette, M. N. and Lubrano, P. and Mazziotta, M. N. and McEnery, J. and McGlynn, S. and Michelson, P. F. and Mitthumsiri, W. and Monzani, M. E. and Moretti, E. and Morselli, A. and Moskalenko, I. V. and Murgia, S. and Naumann-Godo, M. and Norris, J. P. and Nuss, E. and Nymark, T. and Ohsugi, T. and Okumura, A. and Omodei, N. and Orlando, E. and Panetta, J. H. and Parent, D. and Pelassa, V. and Pesce-Rollins, M. and Piron, F. and Pivato, G. and Racusin, J. L. and Rainò, S. and Rando, R. and Razzaque, S. and Reimer, A. and Reimer, O. and Ritz, S. and Ryde, F. and Sgrò, C. and Siskind, E. J. and Sonbas, E. and Spandre, G. and Spinelli, P. and Stamatikos, M. and Stawarz, Łukasz and Suson, D. J. and Takahashi, H. and Tanaka, T. and Thayer, J. G. and Thayer, J. B. and Tibaldo, L. and Tinivella, M. and Tosti, G. and Uehara, T. and Vandenbroucke, J. and Vasileiou, V. and Vianello, G. and Vitale, V. and Waite, A. P. and Connaughton, V. and Briggs, M. S. and Guirec, S. and Goldstein, A. and Burgess, J. M. and Bhat, P. N. and Bissaldi, E. and Camero-Arranz, A. and Fishman, J. and Fitzpatrick, G. and Foley, S. and Gruber, D. and Jenke, P. and Kippen, R. M. and Kouveliotou, C. and McBreen, S. and Meegan, C. and Paciesas, W. S. and Preece, R. and Rau, A. and Tierney, D. and van der Horst, A. J. and von Kienlin, A. and Wilson-Hodge, C. and Xiong, S.},
abstractNote = {Here, we examine 288 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope's Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) that fell within the field of view of Fermi's Large Area Telescope (LAT) during the first 2.5 years of observations, which showed no evidence for emission above 100 MeV. We report the photon flux upper limits in the 0.1-10 GeV range during the prompt emission phase as well as for fixed 30 s and 100 s integrations starting from the trigger time for each burst. We also compare these limits with the fluxes that would be expected from extrapolations of spectral fits presented in the first GBM spectral catalog and infer that roughly half of the GBM-detected bursts either require spectral breaks between the GBM and LAT energy bands or have intrinsically steeper spectra above the peak of the νF ν spectra (E pk). In order to distinguish between these two scenarios, we perform joint GBM and LAT spectral fits to the 30 brightest GBM-detected bursts and find that a majority of these bursts are indeed softer above E pk than would be inferred from fitting the GBM data alone. Approximately 20% of this spectroscopic subsample show statistically significant evidence for a cutoff in their high-energy spectra, which if assumed to be due to γγ attenuation, places limits on the maximum Lorentz factor associated with the relativistic outflow producing this emission. Furthermore, all of these latter bursts have maximum Lorentz factor estimates that are well below the minimum Lorentz factors calculated for LAT-detected GRBs, revealing a wide distribution in the bulk Lorentz factor of GRB outflows and indicating that LAT-detected bursts may represent the high end of this distribution.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/754/2/121},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
number = 2,
volume = 754,
place = {United States},
year = {2012},
month = {7}
}

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Works referenced in this record:

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FERMI DETECTION OF DELAYED GeV EMISSION FROM THE SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURST 081024B
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    Works referencing / citing this record:

    GeV and Higher Energy Photon Interactions in Gamma‐Ray Burst Fireballs and Surroundings
    journal, October 2004

    • Razzaque, Soebur; Meszaros, Peter; Zhang, Bing
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 613, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1086/423166

    THE LARGE AREA TELESCOPE ON THE FERMI GAMMA-RAY SPACE TELESCOPE MISSION
    journal, May 2009


    Lower Limits on Lorentz Factors in Gamma‐Ray Bursts
    journal, July 2001

    • Lithwick, Yoram; Sari, Re’em
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 555, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1086/321455

    The Likelihood Analysis of EGRET Data
    journal, April 1996

    • Mattox, J. R.; Bertsch, D. L.; Chiang, J.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 461
    • DOI: 10.1086/177068

    Do Fermi Large Area Telescope observations imply very large Lorentz factors in gamma-ray burst outflows?: γγconstraints on GRBs from LAT observations
    journal, January 2012


    Opacity of the Universe to High-Energy Photons
    journal, March 1967


    The AGILE observations of the hard and bright GRB 100724B
    journal, November 2011


    Upper limit of peak area
    journal, July 1983


    High-energy gamma rays from the intense 1993 January 31 gamma-ray burst
    journal, February 1994

    • Sommer, M.; Bertsch, D. L.; Dingus, B. L.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 422
    • DOI: 10.1086/187213

    THE FERMI GAMMA-RAY BURST MONITOR
    journal, August 2009


    Review of Particle Physics
    journal, September 2008


    BATSE observations of the very intense gamma-ray burst GRB 930131
    journal, February 1994

    • Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Preece, Robert; Bhat, Narayana
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 422
    • DOI: 10.1086/187212

    The Swift Gamma‐Ray Burst Mission
    journal, August 2004

    • Gehrels, N.; Chincarini, G.; Giommi, P.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 611, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1086/422091

    FERMI DETECTION OF DELAYED GeV EMISSION FROM THE SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURST 081024B
    journal, March 2010


    Detection of a γ-ray burst of very long duration and very high energy
    journal, December 1994

    • Hurley, K.; Dingus, B. L.; Mukherjee, R.
    • Nature, Vol. 372, Issue 6507
    • DOI: 10.1038/372652a0

    Determination of confidence limits for experiments with low numbers of counts
    journal, June 1991

    • Kraft, Ralph P.; Burrows, David N.; Nousek, John A.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 374
    • DOI: 10.1086/170124

    PROSPECTS FOR GRB SCIENCE WITH THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE
    journal, August 2009


    FERMI OBSERVATIONS OF GRB 090510: A SHORT-HARD GAMMA-RAY BURST WITH AN ADDITIONAL, HARD POWER-LAW COMPONENT FROM 10 keV TO GeV ENERGIES
    journal, May 2010


    Detection of a Spectral Break in the Extra hard Component of grb 090926a
    journal, February 2011


    A REVISED LIMIT OF THE LORENTZ FACTORS OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTs WITH TWO EMITTING REGIONS
    journal, December 2010


    FERMI constraints on the high energy,  ~1 GeV, emission of long gamma ray bursts
    journal, December 2010


    The BATSE Gamma‐Ray Burst Spectral Catalog. I. High Time Resolution Spectroscopy of Bright Bursts Using High Energy Resolution Data
    journal, January 2000

    • Preece, R. D.; Briggs, M. S.; Mallozzi, R. S.
    • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 126, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1086/313289

    An algorithm for optimal partitioning of data on an interval
    journal, February 2005

    • Jackson, B.; Scargle, J. D.; Barnes, D.
    • IEEE Signal Processing Letters, Vol. 12, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1109/lsp.2001.838216

    A γ-ray burst with a high-energy spectral component inconsistent with the synchrotron shock model
    journal, August 2003

    • González, M. M.; Dingus, B. L.; Kaneko, Y.
    • Nature, Vol. 424, Issue 6950
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature01869

    Fermi Observations of High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from GRB 080916C
    journal, February 2009


    THE FERMI GBM GAMMA-RAY BURST SPECTRAL CATALOG: THE FIRST TWO YEARS
    journal, March 2012

    • Goldstein, Adam; Burgess, J. Michael; Preece, Robert D.
    • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 199, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/199/1/19

    FERMI OBSERVATIONS OF GRB 090902B: A DISTINCT SPECTRAL COMPONENT IN THE PROMPT AND DELAYED EMISSION
    journal, November 2009


    Limits on the GeV emission from gamma-ray bursts: Limits on the GeV emission from gamma-ray bursts
    journal, August 2011


    FIRST-YEAR RESULTS OF BROADBAND SPECTROSCOPY OF THE BRIGHTEST FERMI -GBM GAMMA-RAY BURSTS
    journal, May 2011

    • Bissaldi, Elisabetta; von Kienlin, Andreas; Kouveliotou, Chryssa
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 733, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637x/733/2/97

    Gamma‐Ray Bursts Have Millisecond Variability
    journal, July 2000

    • Walker, Katharine C.; Schaefer, Bradley E.; Fenimore, E. E.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 537, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1086/308995

    High-energy γ-ray emission from gamma-ray bursts — before GLAST
    journal, July 2008


    The Complete Spectral Catalog of Bright BATSE Gamma‐Ray Bursts
    journal, September 2006

    • Kaneko, Yuki; Preece, Robert D.; Briggs, Michael S.
    • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 166, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1086/505911

    BATSE observations of gamma-ray burst spectra. I - Spectral diversity
    journal, August 1993

    • Band, D.; Matteson, J.; Ford, L.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 413
    • DOI: 10.1086/172995

    Opacity Buildup in Impulsive Relativistic Sources
    journal, April 2008

    • Granot, Jonathan; Cohen‐Tanugi, Johann; do Couto e. Silva, Eduardo
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 677, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1086/526414

    Detection of a Thermal Spectral Component in the Prompt Emission of grb 100724b
    journal, January 2011

    • Guiriec, Sylvain; Connaughton, Valerie; Briggs, Michael S.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 727, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/727/2/l33

    Temporal Evolution of Pair Attenuation Signatures in Gamma‐Ray Burst Spectra
    journal, October 2006

    • Baring, Matthew G.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 650, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1086/506960

    FERMI OBSERVATIONS OF HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM GRB 080825C
    journal, November 2009