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Title: Constraining the high-energy emission from gamma-ray bursts with Fermi

Abstract

Here, we examine 288 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope's Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) that fell within the field of view of Fermi's Large Area Telescope (LAT) during the first 2.5 years of observations, which showed no evidence for emission above 100 MeV. We report the photon flux upper limits in the 0.1-10 GeV range during the prompt emission phase as well as for fixed 30 s and 100 s integrations starting from the trigger time for each burst. We also compare these limits with the fluxes that would be expected from extrapolations of spectral fits presented in the first GBM spectral catalog and infer that roughly half of the GBM-detected bursts either require spectral breaks between the GBM and LAT energy bands or have intrinsically steeper spectra above the peak of the νF ν spectra (E pk). In order to distinguish between these two scenarios, we perform joint GBM and LAT spectral fits to the 30 brightest GBM-detected bursts and find that a majority of these bursts are indeed softer above E pk than would be inferred from fitting the GBM data alone. Approximately 20% of this spectroscopic subsample show statistically significant evidence for amore » cutoff in their high-energy spectra, which if assumed to be due to γγ attenuation, places limits on the maximum Lorentz factor associated with the relativistic outflow producing this emission. Furthermore, all of these latter bursts have maximum Lorentz factor estimates that are well below the minimum Lorentz factors calculated for LAT-detected GRBs, revealing a wide distribution in the bulk Lorentz factor of GRB outflows and indicating that LAT-detected bursts may represent the high end of this distribution.« less

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
Contributing Org.:
The Fermi Large Area Telescope Team; The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor Team
OSTI Identifier:
1356715
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astrophysical Journal
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 754; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-637X
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; gamma-ray burst: general; gamma rays: general

Citation Formats

Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Baldini, L., Barbiellini, G., Baring, M. G., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bottacini, E., Bouvier, A., Brigida, M., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Cecchi, C., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Cutini, S., D'Ammando, F., de Palma, F., Dermer, C. D., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Drlica-Wagner, A., Favuzzi, C., Fukazawa, Y., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Germani, S., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Granot, J., Grenier, I. A., Grove, J. E., Hadasch, D., Hanabata, Y., Harding, A. K., Hays, E., Horan, D., Jóhannesson, G., Kataoka, J., Knödlseder, J., Kocevski, D., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J., McGlynn, S., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Monzani, M. E., Moretti, E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Naumann-Godo, M., Norris, J. P., Nuss, E., Nymark, T., Ohsugi, T., Okumura, A., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Panetta, J. H., Parent, D., Pelassa, V., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Racusin, J. L., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Ritz, S., Ryde, F., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Sonbas, E., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Stamatikos, M., Stawarz, Łukasz, Suson, D. J., Takahashi, H., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J. G., Thayer, J. B., Tibaldo, L., Tinivella, M., Tosti, G., Uehara, T., Vandenbroucke, J., Vasileiou, V., Vianello, G., Vitale, V., Waite, A. P., Connaughton, V., Briggs, M. S., Guirec, S., Goldstein, A., Burgess, J. M., Bhat, P. N., Bissaldi, E., Camero-Arranz, A., Fishman, J., Fitzpatrick, G., Foley, S., Gruber, D., Jenke, P., Kippen, R. M., Kouveliotou, C., McBreen, S., Meegan, C., Paciesas, W. S., Preece, R., Rau, A., Tierney, D., van der Horst, A. J., von Kienlin, A., Wilson-Hodge, C., and Xiong, S. Constraining the high-energy emission from gamma-ray bursts with Fermi. United States: N. p., 2012. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/754/2/121.
Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Baldini, L., Barbiellini, G., Baring, M. G., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bottacini, E., Bouvier, A., Brigida, M., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Cecchi, C., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Cutini, S., D'Ammando, F., de Palma, F., Dermer, C. D., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Drlica-Wagner, A., Favuzzi, C., Fukazawa, Y., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Germani, S., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Granot, J., Grenier, I. A., Grove, J. E., Hadasch, D., Hanabata, Y., Harding, A. K., Hays, E., Horan, D., Jóhannesson, G., Kataoka, J., Knödlseder, J., Kocevski, D., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J., McGlynn, S., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Monzani, M. E., Moretti, E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Naumann-Godo, M., Norris, J. P., Nuss, E., Nymark, T., Ohsugi, T., Okumura, A., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Panetta, J. H., Parent, D., Pelassa, V., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Racusin, J. L., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Ritz, S., Ryde, F., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Sonbas, E., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Stamatikos, M., Stawarz, Łukasz, Suson, D. J., Takahashi, H., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J. G., Thayer, J. B., Tibaldo, L., Tinivella, M., Tosti, G., Uehara, T., Vandenbroucke, J., Vasileiou, V., Vianello, G., Vitale, V., Waite, A. P., Connaughton, V., Briggs, M. S., Guirec, S., Goldstein, A., Burgess, J. M., Bhat, P. N., Bissaldi, E., Camero-Arranz, A., Fishman, J., Fitzpatrick, G., Foley, S., Gruber, D., Jenke, P., Kippen, R. M., Kouveliotou, C., McBreen, S., Meegan, C., Paciesas, W. S., Preece, R., Rau, A., Tierney, D., van der Horst, A. J., von Kienlin, A., Wilson-Hodge, C., & Xiong, S. Constraining the high-energy emission from gamma-ray bursts with Fermi. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/754/2/121.
Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Baldini, L., Barbiellini, G., Baring, M. G., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bottacini, E., Bouvier, A., Brigida, M., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Cecchi, C., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Cutini, S., D'Ammando, F., de Palma, F., Dermer, C. D., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Drlica-Wagner, A., Favuzzi, C., Fukazawa, Y., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Germani, S., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Granot, J., Grenier, I. A., Grove, J. E., Hadasch, D., Hanabata, Y., Harding, A. K., Hays, E., Horan, D., Jóhannesson, G., Kataoka, J., Knödlseder, J., Kocevski, D., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J., McGlynn, S., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Monzani, M. E., Moretti, E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Naumann-Godo, M., Norris, J. P., Nuss, E., Nymark, T., Ohsugi, T., Okumura, A., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Panetta, J. H., Parent, D., Pelassa, V., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Racusin, J. L., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Ritz, S., Ryde, F., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Sonbas, E., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Stamatikos, M., Stawarz, Łukasz, Suson, D. J., Takahashi, H., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J. G., Thayer, J. B., Tibaldo, L., Tinivella, M., Tosti, G., Uehara, T., Vandenbroucke, J., Vasileiou, V., Vianello, G., Vitale, V., Waite, A. P., Connaughton, V., Briggs, M. S., Guirec, S., Goldstein, A., Burgess, J. M., Bhat, P. N., Bissaldi, E., Camero-Arranz, A., Fishman, J., Fitzpatrick, G., Foley, S., Gruber, D., Jenke, P., Kippen, R. M., Kouveliotou, C., McBreen, S., Meegan, C., Paciesas, W. S., Preece, R., Rau, A., Tierney, D., van der Horst, A. J., von Kienlin, A., Wilson-Hodge, C., and Xiong, S. Tue . "Constraining the high-energy emission from gamma-ray bursts with Fermi". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/754/2/121. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1356715.
@article{osti_1356715,
title = {Constraining the high-energy emission from gamma-ray bursts with Fermi},
author = {Ackermann, M. and Ajello, M. and Baldini, L. and Barbiellini, G. and Baring, M. G. and Bechtol, K. and Bellazzini, R. and Blandford, R. D. and Bloom, E. D. and Bonamente, E. and Borgland, A. W. and Bottacini, E. and Bouvier, A. and Brigida, M. and Buehler, R. and Buson, S. and Caliandro, G. A. and Cameron, R. A. and Cecchi, C. and Charles, E. and Chekhtman, A. and Chiang, J. and Ciprini, S. and Claus, R. and Cohen-Tanugi, J. and Cutini, S. and D'Ammando, F. and de Palma, F. and Dermer, C. D. and do Couto e Silva, E. and Drell, P. S. and Drlica-Wagner, A. and Favuzzi, C. and Fukazawa, Y. and Fusco, P. and Gargano, F. and Gasparrini, D. and Gehrels, N. and Germani, S. and Giglietto, N. and Giordano, F. and Giroletti, M. and Glanzman, T. and Granot, J. and Grenier, I. A. and Grove, J. E. and Hadasch, D. and Hanabata, Y. and Harding, A. K. and Hays, E. and Horan, D. and Jóhannesson, G. and Kataoka, J. and Knödlseder, J. and Kocevski, D. and Kuss, M. and Lande, J. and Longo, F. and Loparco, F. and Lovellette, M. N. and Lubrano, P. and Mazziotta, M. N. and McEnery, J. and McGlynn, S. and Michelson, P. F. and Mitthumsiri, W. and Monzani, M. E. and Moretti, E. and Morselli, A. and Moskalenko, I. V. and Murgia, S. and Naumann-Godo, M. and Norris, J. P. and Nuss, E. and Nymark, T. and Ohsugi, T. and Okumura, A. and Omodei, N. and Orlando, E. and Panetta, J. H. and Parent, D. and Pelassa, V. and Pesce-Rollins, M. and Piron, F. and Pivato, G. and Racusin, J. L. and Rainò, S. and Rando, R. and Razzaque, S. and Reimer, A. and Reimer, O. and Ritz, S. and Ryde, F. and Sgrò, C. and Siskind, E. J. and Sonbas, E. and Spandre, G. and Spinelli, P. and Stamatikos, M. and Stawarz, Łukasz and Suson, D. J. and Takahashi, H. and Tanaka, T. and Thayer, J. G. and Thayer, J. B. and Tibaldo, L. and Tinivella, M. and Tosti, G. and Uehara, T. and Vandenbroucke, J. and Vasileiou, V. and Vianello, G. and Vitale, V. and Waite, A. P. and Connaughton, V. and Briggs, M. S. and Guirec, S. and Goldstein, A. and Burgess, J. M. and Bhat, P. N. and Bissaldi, E. and Camero-Arranz, A. and Fishman, J. and Fitzpatrick, G. and Foley, S. and Gruber, D. and Jenke, P. and Kippen, R. M. and Kouveliotou, C. and McBreen, S. and Meegan, C. and Paciesas, W. S. and Preece, R. and Rau, A. and Tierney, D. and van der Horst, A. J. and von Kienlin, A. and Wilson-Hodge, C. and Xiong, S.},
abstractNote = {Here, we examine 288 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope's Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) that fell within the field of view of Fermi's Large Area Telescope (LAT) during the first 2.5 years of observations, which showed no evidence for emission above 100 MeV. We report the photon flux upper limits in the 0.1-10 GeV range during the prompt emission phase as well as for fixed 30 s and 100 s integrations starting from the trigger time for each burst. We also compare these limits with the fluxes that would be expected from extrapolations of spectral fits presented in the first GBM spectral catalog and infer that roughly half of the GBM-detected bursts either require spectral breaks between the GBM and LAT energy bands or have intrinsically steeper spectra above the peak of the νF ν spectra (E pk). In order to distinguish between these two scenarios, we perform joint GBM and LAT spectral fits to the 30 brightest GBM-detected bursts and find that a majority of these bursts are indeed softer above E pk than would be inferred from fitting the GBM data alone. Approximately 20% of this spectroscopic subsample show statistically significant evidence for a cutoff in their high-energy spectra, which if assumed to be due to γγ attenuation, places limits on the maximum Lorentz factor associated with the relativistic outflow producing this emission. Furthermore, all of these latter bursts have maximum Lorentz factor estimates that are well below the minimum Lorentz factors calculated for LAT-detected GRBs, revealing a wide distribution in the bulk Lorentz factor of GRB outflows and indicating that LAT-detected bursts may represent the high end of this distribution.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/754/2/121},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
number = 2,
volume = 754,
place = {United States},
year = {2012},
month = {7}
}

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