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Title: Fermi large area telescope study of cosmic rays and the interstellar medium in nearby molecular clouds

Abstract

Here, we report an analysis of the interstellar γ-ray emission from the Chamaeleon, R Coronae Australis (R CrA), and Cepheus and Polaris flare regions with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. They are among the nearest molecular cloud complexes, within ~300 pc from the solar system. The γ-ray emission produced by interactions of cosmic rays (CRs) and interstellar gas in those molecular clouds is useful to study the CR densities and distributions of molecular gas close to the solar system. The obtained γ-ray emissivities above 250 MeV are (5.9 ± 0.1stat +0.9 –1.0sys) × 10–27 photons s–1 sr–1 H-atom–1, (10.2 ± 0.4stat +1.2 –1.7sys) × 10–27 photons s–1 sr–1 H-atom–1, and (9.1 ± 0.3stat +1.5 –0.6sys) × 10–27 photons s–1 sr–1 H-atom–1 for the Chamaeleon, R CrA, and Cepheus and Polaris flare regions, respectively. Whereas the energy dependences of the emissivities agree well with that predicted from direct CR observations at the Earth, the measured emissivities from 250 MeV to 10 GeV indicate a variation of the CR density by ~20% in the neighborhood of the solar system, even if we consider systematic uncertainties. Furthermore, we found that the molecular mass calibrating ratio, X CO = N(H2)/W CO, was (0.96 ±more » 0.06stat +0.15 –0.12sys) × 1020 H2-molecule cm–2 (K km s–1)–1, (0.99 ± 0.08stat +0.18 –0.10sys) × 1020 H2-molecule cm–2 (K km s–1)–1, and (0.63 ± 0.02stat +0.09 –0.07sys) × 1020 H2-molecule cm–2 (K km s–1)–1 for the Chamaeleon, R CrA, and Cepheus and Polaris flare regions, respectively, suggesting a variation of X CO in the vicinity of the solar system. The obtained values of X CO, the masses of molecular gas traced by W CO in the Chamaeleon, R CrA, and Cepheus and Polaris flare regions are estimated to be ~5 × 103 M ,⊙ ~103 M ,⊙ and ~3.3 × 104 M ,⊙ respectively. A comparable amount of gas not traced well by standard H I and CO surveys is found in the regions investigated.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more »; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
Contributing Org.:
Fermi LAT Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1356712
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astrophysical Journal
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 755; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-637X
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; cosmic rays; gamma rays: ISM

Citation Formats

Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Allafort, A., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Berenji, B., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bottacini, E., Brandt, T. J., Bregeon, J., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Busetto, G., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caraveo, P. A., Casandjian, J. M., Cecchi, C., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Conrad, J., D’Ammando, F., de Angelis, A., de Palma, F., Dermer, C. D., Digel, S. W., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Drlica-Wagner, A., Falletti, L., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Fukazawa, Y., Fukui, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Germani, S., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Grove, J. E., Guiriec, S., Hadasch, D., Hanabata, Y., Harding, A. K., Hayashi, K., Horan, D., Hou, X., Hughes, R. E., Itoh, R., Jackson, M. S., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Kamae, T., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Knödlseder, J., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Larsson, S., Lee, S. -H., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Martin, P., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Mehault, J., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Naumann-Godo, M., Nemmen, R., Nishino, S., Norris, J. P., Nuss, E., Ohno, M., Ohsugi, T., Okumura, A., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Ozaki, M., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Parent, D., Pesce-Rollins, M., Pierbattista, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Romoli, C., Roth, M., Sada, T., Sadrozinski, H. F. -W., Sanchez, D. A., Sbarra, C., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Strong, A. W., Suson, D. J., Takahashi, H., Takahashi, T., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J. G., Thayer, J. B., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Tibolla, O., Tinivella, M., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Tramacere, A., Troja, E., Uchiyama, Y., Uehara, T., Usher, T. L., Vandenbroucke, J., Vasileiou, V., Vianello, G., Vitale, V., Waite, A. P., Wang, P., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., Yamamoto, H., Yang, Z., and Zimmer, S. Fermi large area telescope study of cosmic rays and the interstellar medium in nearby molecular clouds. United States: N. p., 2012. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/755/1/22.
Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Allafort, A., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Berenji, B., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bottacini, E., Brandt, T. J., Bregeon, J., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Busetto, G., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caraveo, P. A., Casandjian, J. M., Cecchi, C., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Conrad, J., D’Ammando, F., de Angelis, A., de Palma, F., Dermer, C. D., Digel, S. W., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Drlica-Wagner, A., Falletti, L., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Fukazawa, Y., Fukui, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Germani, S., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Grove, J. E., Guiriec, S., Hadasch, D., Hanabata, Y., Harding, A. K., Hayashi, K., Horan, D., Hou, X., Hughes, R. E., Itoh, R., Jackson, M. S., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Kamae, T., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Knödlseder, J., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Larsson, S., Lee, S. -H., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Martin, P., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Mehault, J., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Naumann-Godo, M., Nemmen, R., Nishino, S., Norris, J. P., Nuss, E., Ohno, M., Ohsugi, T., Okumura, A., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Ozaki, M., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Parent, D., Pesce-Rollins, M., Pierbattista, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Romoli, C., Roth, M., Sada, T., Sadrozinski, H. F. -W., Sanchez, D. A., Sbarra, C., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Strong, A. W., Suson, D. J., Takahashi, H., Takahashi, T., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J. G., Thayer, J. B., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Tibolla, O., Tinivella, M., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Tramacere, A., Troja, E., Uchiyama, Y., Uehara, T., Usher, T. L., Vandenbroucke, J., Vasileiou, V., Vianello, G., Vitale, V., Waite, A. P., Wang, P., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., Yamamoto, H., Yang, Z., & Zimmer, S. Fermi large area telescope study of cosmic rays and the interstellar medium in nearby molecular clouds. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/755/1/22.
Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Allafort, A., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Berenji, B., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bottacini, E., Brandt, T. J., Bregeon, J., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Busetto, G., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caraveo, P. A., Casandjian, J. M., Cecchi, C., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Conrad, J., D’Ammando, F., de Angelis, A., de Palma, F., Dermer, C. D., Digel, S. W., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Drlica-Wagner, A., Falletti, L., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Fukazawa, Y., Fukui, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Germani, S., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Grove, J. E., Guiriec, S., Hadasch, D., Hanabata, Y., Harding, A. K., Hayashi, K., Horan, D., Hou, X., Hughes, R. E., Itoh, R., Jackson, M. S., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Kamae, T., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Knödlseder, J., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Larsson, S., Lee, S. -H., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Martin, P., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Mehault, J., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Naumann-Godo, M., Nemmen, R., Nishino, S., Norris, J. P., Nuss, E., Ohno, M., Ohsugi, T., Okumura, A., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Ozaki, M., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Parent, D., Pesce-Rollins, M., Pierbattista, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Romoli, C., Roth, M., Sada, T., Sadrozinski, H. F. -W., Sanchez, D. A., Sbarra, C., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Strong, A. W., Suson, D. J., Takahashi, H., Takahashi, T., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J. G., Thayer, J. B., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Tibolla, O., Tinivella, M., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Tramacere, A., Troja, E., Uchiyama, Y., Uehara, T., Usher, T. L., Vandenbroucke, J., Vasileiou, V., Vianello, G., Vitale, V., Waite, A. P., Wang, P., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., Yamamoto, H., Yang, Z., and Zimmer, S. Mon . "Fermi large area telescope study of cosmic rays and the interstellar medium in nearby molecular clouds". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/755/1/22. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1356712.
@article{osti_1356712,
title = {Fermi large area telescope study of cosmic rays and the interstellar medium in nearby molecular clouds},
author = {Ackermann, M. and Ajello, M. and Allafort, A. and Baldini, L. and Ballet, J. and Barbiellini, G. and Bastieri, D. and Bechtol, K. and Bellazzini, R. and Berenji, B. and Blandford, R. D. and Bloom, E. D. and Bonamente, E. and Borgland, A. W. and Bottacini, E. and Brandt, T. J. and Bregeon, J. and Brigida, M. and Bruel, P. and Buehler, R. and Busetto, G. and Buson, S. and Caliandro, G. A. and Cameron, R. A. and Caraveo, P. A. and Casandjian, J. M. and Cecchi, C. and Charles, E. and Chekhtman, A. and Chiang, J. and Ciprini, S. and Claus, R. and Cohen-Tanugi, J. and Conrad, J. and D’Ammando, F. and de Angelis, A. and de Palma, F. and Dermer, C. D. and Digel, S. W. and do Couto e Silva, E. and Drell, P. S. and Drlica-Wagner, A. and Falletti, L. and Favuzzi, C. and Fegan, S. J. and Ferrara, E. C. and Focke, W. B. and Fukazawa, Y. and Fukui, Y. and Funk, S. and Fusco, P. and Gargano, F. and Gasparrini, D. and Germani, S. and Giglietto, N. and Giordano, F. and Giroletti, M. and Glanzman, T. and Godfrey, G. and Grenier, I. A. and Grondin, M. -H. and Grove, J. E. and Guiriec, S. and Hadasch, D. and Hanabata, Y. and Harding, A. K. and Hayashi, K. and Horan, D. and Hou, X. and Hughes, R. E. and Itoh, R. and Jackson, M. S. and Jóhannesson, G. and Johnson, A. S. and Kamae, T. and Katagiri, H. and Kataoka, J. and Knödlseder, J. and Kuss, M. and Lande, J. and Larsson, S. and Lee, S. -H. and Lemoine-Goumard, M. and Longo, F. and Loparco, F. and Lovellette, M. N. and Lubrano, P. and Martin, P. and Mazziotta, M. N. and McEnery, J. E. and Mehault, J. and Michelson, P. F. and Mitthumsiri, W. and Mizuno, T. and Moiseev, A. A. and Monte, C. and Monzani, M. E. and Morselli, A. and Moskalenko, I. V. and Murgia, S. and Naumann-Godo, M. and Nemmen, R. and Nishino, S. and Norris, J. P. and Nuss, E. and Ohno, M. and Ohsugi, T. and Okumura, A. and Omodei, N. and Orlando, E. and Ormes, J. F. and Ozaki, M. and Paneque, D. and Panetta, J. H. and Parent, D. and Pesce-Rollins, M. and Pierbattista, M. and Piron, F. and Pivato, G. and Porter, T. A. and Rainò, S. and Rando, R. and Razzano, M. and Reimer, A. and Reimer, O. and Romoli, C. and Roth, M. and Sada, T. and Sadrozinski, H. F. -W. and Sanchez, D. A. and Sbarra, C. and Sgrò, C. and Siskind, E. J. and Spandre, G. and Spinelli, P. and Strong, A. W. and Suson, D. J. and Takahashi, H. and Takahashi, T. and Tanaka, T. and Thayer, J. G. and Thayer, J. B. and Thompson, D. J. and Tibaldo, L. and Tibolla, O. and Tinivella, M. and Torres, D. F. and Tosti, G. and Tramacere, A. and Troja, E. and Uchiyama, Y. and Uehara, T. and Usher, T. L. and Vandenbroucke, J. and Vasileiou, V. and Vianello, G. and Vitale, V. and Waite, A. P. and Wang, P. and Winer, B. L. and Wood, K. S. and Yamamoto, H. and Yang, Z. and Zimmer, S.},
abstractNote = {Here, we report an analysis of the interstellar γ-ray emission from the Chamaeleon, R Coronae Australis (R CrA), and Cepheus and Polaris flare regions with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. They are among the nearest molecular cloud complexes, within ~300 pc from the solar system. The γ-ray emission produced by interactions of cosmic rays (CRs) and interstellar gas in those molecular clouds is useful to study the CR densities and distributions of molecular gas close to the solar system. The obtained γ-ray emissivities above 250 MeV are (5.9 ± 0.1stat +0.9 –1.0sys) × 10–27 photons s–1 sr–1 H-atom–1, (10.2 ± 0.4stat +1.2 –1.7sys) × 10–27 photons s–1 sr–1 H-atom–1, and (9.1 ± 0.3stat +1.5 –0.6sys) × 10–27 photons s–1 sr–1 H-atom–1 for the Chamaeleon, R CrA, and Cepheus and Polaris flare regions, respectively. Whereas the energy dependences of the emissivities agree well with that predicted from direct CR observations at the Earth, the measured emissivities from 250 MeV to 10 GeV indicate a variation of the CR density by ~20% in the neighborhood of the solar system, even if we consider systematic uncertainties. Furthermore, we found that the molecular mass calibrating ratio, X CO = N(H2)/W CO, was (0.96 ± 0.06stat +0.15 –0.12sys) × 1020 H2-molecule cm–2 (K km s–1)–1, (0.99 ± 0.08stat +0.18 –0.10sys) × 1020 H2-molecule cm–2 (K km s–1)–1, and (0.63 ± 0.02stat +0.09 –0.07sys) × 1020 H2-molecule cm–2 (K km s–1)–1 for the Chamaeleon, R CrA, and Cepheus and Polaris flare regions, respectively, suggesting a variation of X CO in the vicinity of the solar system. The obtained values of X CO, the masses of molecular gas traced by W CO in the Chamaeleon, R CrA, and Cepheus and Polaris flare regions are estimated to be ~5 × 103 M ,⊙ ~103 M ,⊙ and ~3.3 × 104 M ,⊙ respectively. A comparable amount of gas not traced well by standard H I and CO surveys is found in the regions investigated.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/755/1/22},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
number = 1,
volume = 755,
place = {United States},
year = {2012},
month = {7}
}

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    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 880, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab2880

    Cosmic-ray propagation in the bi-stable interstellar medium: I. Conditions for cosmic-ray trapping
    journal, February 2019


    Probing cosmic rays in nearby giant molecular clouds with the Fermi Large Area Telescope
    journal, June 2014


    Cosmic rays, gas and dust in nearby anticentre clouds: I. CO-to-H
    journal, May 2017


    Analysis of GeV-band γ -ray emission from supernova remnant RX J1713.7-3946
    journal, April 2015