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Title: GeV Observations of star-forming galaxies with the Fermi large area telescope

Abstract

Some recent detections of the starburst galaxies M82 and NGC 253 by gamma-ray telescopes suggest that galaxies rapidly forming massive stars are more luminous at gamma-ray energies compared to their quiescent relatives. Building upon those results, we examine a sample of 69 dwarf, spiral, and luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies at photon energies 0.1-100 GeV using 3 years of data collected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi). Measured fluxes from significantly detected sources and flux upper limits for the remaining galaxies are used to explore the physics of cosmic rays in galaxies. Here, we find further evidence for quasi-linear scaling relations between gamma-ray luminosity and both radio continuum luminosity and total infrared luminosity which apply both to quiescent galaxies of the Local Group and low-redshift starburst galaxies (conservative P-values ≲ 0.05 accounting for statistical and systematic uncertainties). The normalizations of these scaling relations correspond to luminosity ratios of log (L 0.1-100 GeV/L 1.4 GHz) = 1.7 ± 0.1(statistical) ± 0.2(dispersion) and log (L 0.1-100 GeV/L 8-1000 μm) = –4.3 ± 0.1(statistical) ± 0.2(dispersion) for a galaxy with a star formation rate of 1 M ⊙yr –1, assuming a Chabrier initial mass function. Usingmore » the relationship between infrared luminosity and gamma-ray luminosity, the collective intensity of unresolved star-forming galaxies at redshifts 0 < z < 2.5 above 0.1 GeV is estimated to be 0.4-2.4 × 10 –6 ph cm –2 s –1 sr –1 (4%-23% of the intensity of the isotropic diffuse component measured with the LAT). Furthermore, we anticipate that ~10 galaxies could be detected by their cosmic-ray-induced gamma-ray emission during a 10 year Fermi mission.« less

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
Contributing Org.:
Fermi LAT Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1356697
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astrophysical Journal
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 755; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-637X
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; cosmic rays; galaxies: starburst; gamma rays: diffuse background; gamma rays: galaxies

Citation Formats

Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Allafort, A., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Berenji, B., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bouvier, A., Bregeon, J., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caraveo, P. A., Casandjian, J. M., Cecchi, C., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Cillis, A. N., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Conrad, J., Cutini, S., de Palma, F., Dermer, C. D., Digel, S. W., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Drlica-Wagner, A., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Fortin, P., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Germani, S., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Guiriec, S., Gustafsson, M., Hadasch, D., Hayashida, M., Hays, E., Hughes, R. E., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Kamae, T., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Knödlseder, J., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Madejski, G. M., Martin, P., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Michelson, P. F., Mizuno, T., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nishino, S., Norris, J. P., Nuss, E., Ohno, M., Ohsugi, T., Okumura, A., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ozaki, M., Parent, D., Persic, M., Pesce-Rollins, M., Petrosian, V., Pierbattista, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Ritz, S., Roth, M., Sbarra, C., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Stawarz, Łukasz, Strong, A. W., Takahashi, H., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J. B., Tibaldo, L., Tinivella, M., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Troja, E., Uchiyama, Y., Vandenbroucke, J., Vianello, G., Vitale, V., Waite, A. P., Wood, M., and Yang, Z. GeV Observations of star-forming galaxies with the Fermi large area telescope. United States: N. p., 2012. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/755/2/164.
Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Allafort, A., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Berenji, B., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bouvier, A., Bregeon, J., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caraveo, P. A., Casandjian, J. M., Cecchi, C., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Cillis, A. N., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Conrad, J., Cutini, S., de Palma, F., Dermer, C. D., Digel, S. W., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Drlica-Wagner, A., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Fortin, P., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Germani, S., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Guiriec, S., Gustafsson, M., Hadasch, D., Hayashida, M., Hays, E., Hughes, R. E., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Kamae, T., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Knödlseder, J., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Madejski, G. M., Martin, P., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Michelson, P. F., Mizuno, T., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nishino, S., Norris, J. P., Nuss, E., Ohno, M., Ohsugi, T., Okumura, A., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ozaki, M., Parent, D., Persic, M., Pesce-Rollins, M., Petrosian, V., Pierbattista, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Ritz, S., Roth, M., Sbarra, C., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Stawarz, Łukasz, Strong, A. W., Takahashi, H., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J. B., Tibaldo, L., Tinivella, M., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Troja, E., Uchiyama, Y., Vandenbroucke, J., Vianello, G., Vitale, V., Waite, A. P., Wood, M., & Yang, Z. GeV Observations of star-forming galaxies with the Fermi large area telescope. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/755/2/164.
Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Allafort, A., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Berenji, B., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bouvier, A., Bregeon, J., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caraveo, P. A., Casandjian, J. M., Cecchi, C., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Cillis, A. N., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Conrad, J., Cutini, S., de Palma, F., Dermer, C. D., Digel, S. W., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Drlica-Wagner, A., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Fortin, P., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Germani, S., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Guiriec, S., Gustafsson, M., Hadasch, D., Hayashida, M., Hays, E., Hughes, R. E., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Kamae, T., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Knödlseder, J., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Madejski, G. M., Martin, P., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Michelson, P. F., Mizuno, T., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nishino, S., Norris, J. P., Nuss, E., Ohno, M., Ohsugi, T., Okumura, A., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ozaki, M., Parent, D., Persic, M., Pesce-Rollins, M., Petrosian, V., Pierbattista, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Ritz, S., Roth, M., Sbarra, C., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Stawarz, Łukasz, Strong, A. W., Takahashi, H., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J. B., Tibaldo, L., Tinivella, M., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Troja, E., Uchiyama, Y., Vandenbroucke, J., Vianello, G., Vitale, V., Waite, A. P., Wood, M., and Yang, Z. Tue . "GeV Observations of star-forming galaxies with the Fermi large area telescope". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/755/2/164. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1356697.
@article{osti_1356697,
title = {GeV Observations of star-forming galaxies with the Fermi large area telescope},
author = {Ackermann, M. and Ajello, M. and Allafort, A. and Baldini, L. and Ballet, J. and Bastieri, D. and Bechtol, K. and Bellazzini, R. and Berenji, B. and Bloom, E. D. and Bonamente, E. and Borgland, A. W. and Bouvier, A. and Bregeon, J. and Brigida, M. and Bruel, P. and Buehler, R. and Buson, S. and Caliandro, G. A. and Cameron, R. A. and Caraveo, P. A. and Casandjian, J. M. and Cecchi, C. and Charles, E. and Chekhtman, A. and Cheung, C. C. and Chiang, J. and Cillis, A. N. and Ciprini, S. and Claus, R. and Cohen-Tanugi, J. and Conrad, J. and Cutini, S. and de Palma, F. and Dermer, C. D. and Digel, S. W. and do Couto e Silva, E. and Drell, P. S. and Drlica-Wagner, A. and Favuzzi, C. and Fegan, S. J. and Fortin, P. and Fukazawa, Y. and Funk, S. and Fusco, P. and Gargano, F. and Gasparrini, D. and Germani, S. and Giglietto, N. and Giordano, F. and Glanzman, T. and Godfrey, G. and Grenier, I. A. and Guiriec, S. and Gustafsson, M. and Hadasch, D. and Hayashida, M. and Hays, E. and Hughes, R. E. and Jóhannesson, G. and Johnson, A. S. and Kamae, T. and Katagiri, H. and Kataoka, J. and Knödlseder, J. and Kuss, M. and Lande, J. and Longo, F. and Loparco, F. and Lott, B. and Lovellette, M. N. and Lubrano, P. and Madejski, G. M. and Martin, P. and Mazziotta, M. N. and McEnery, J. E. and Michelson, P. F. and Mizuno, T. and Monte, C. and Monzani, M. E. and Morselli, A. and Moskalenko, I. V. and Murgia, S. and Nishino, S. and Norris, J. P. and Nuss, E. and Ohno, M. and Ohsugi, T. and Okumura, A. and Omodei, N. and Orlando, E. and Ozaki, M. and Parent, D. and Persic, M. and Pesce-Rollins, M. and Petrosian, V. and Pierbattista, M. and Piron, F. and Pivato, G. and Porter, T. A. and Rainò, S. and Rando, R. and Razzano, M. and Reimer, A. and Reimer, O. and Ritz, S. and Roth, M. and Sbarra, C. and Sgrò, C. and Siskind, E. J. and Spandre, G. and Spinelli, P. and Stawarz, Łukasz and Strong, A. W. and Takahashi, H. and Tanaka, T. and Thayer, J. B. and Tibaldo, L. and Tinivella, M. and Torres, D. F. and Tosti, G. and Troja, E. and Uchiyama, Y. and Vandenbroucke, J. and Vianello, G. and Vitale, V. and Waite, A. P. and Wood, M. and Yang, Z.},
abstractNote = {Some recent detections of the starburst galaxies M82 and NGC 253 by gamma-ray telescopes suggest that galaxies rapidly forming massive stars are more luminous at gamma-ray energies compared to their quiescent relatives. Building upon those results, we examine a sample of 69 dwarf, spiral, and luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies at photon energies 0.1-100 GeV using 3 years of data collected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi). Measured fluxes from significantly detected sources and flux upper limits for the remaining galaxies are used to explore the physics of cosmic rays in galaxies. Here, we find further evidence for quasi-linear scaling relations between gamma-ray luminosity and both radio continuum luminosity and total infrared luminosity which apply both to quiescent galaxies of the Local Group and low-redshift starburst galaxies (conservative P-values ≲ 0.05 accounting for statistical and systematic uncertainties). The normalizations of these scaling relations correspond to luminosity ratios of log (L 0.1-100 GeV/L 1.4 GHz) = 1.7 ± 0.1(statistical) ± 0.2(dispersion) and log (L 0.1-100 GeV/L 8-1000 μm) = –4.3 ± 0.1(statistical) ± 0.2(dispersion) for a galaxy with a star formation rate of 1 M ⊙yr–1, assuming a Chabrier initial mass function. Using the relationship between infrared luminosity and gamma-ray luminosity, the collective intensity of unresolved star-forming galaxies at redshifts 0 < z < 2.5 above 0.1 GeV is estimated to be 0.4-2.4 × 10–6 ph cm–2 s–1 sr–1 (4%-23% of the intensity of the isotropic diffuse component measured with the LAT). Furthermore, we anticipate that ~10 galaxies could be detected by their cosmic-ray-induced gamma-ray emission during a 10 year Fermi mission.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/755/2/164},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
number = 2,
volume = 755,
place = {United States},
year = {2012},
month = {8}
}

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