skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: GRB110721A: An extreme peak energy and signatures of the photosphere

Abstract

GRB110721A was observed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope using its two instruments, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM). This burst consisted of one major emission episode which lasted for ~24.5 s (in the GBM) and had a peak flux of (5.7 ± 0.2) × 10–5 erg s–1 cm–2. The time-resolved emission spectrum is best modeled with a combination of a Band function and a blackbody spectrum. The peak energy of the Band component was initially 15 ± 2 MeV, which is the highest value ever detected in a GRB. We made this measurement by combining GBM/BGO data with LAT Low Energy events to achieve continuous 10-100 MeV coverage. The peak energy later decreased as a power law in time with an index of –1.89 ± 0.10. The temperature of the blackbody component also decreased, starting from ~80 keV, and the decay showed a significant break after ~2 s. The spectrum provides strong constraints on the standard synchrotron model, indicating that alternative mechanisms may give rise to the emission at these energies.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more »; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
Contributing Org.:
Fermi LAT Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1356670
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astrophysical Journal Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 757; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-8205
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; gamma-ray burst: general; gamma-ray burst: individual (GRB 110721A); radiation mechanisms: thermals

Citation Formats

Axelsson, M., Baldini, L., Barbiellini, G., Baring, M. G., Bellazzini, R., Bregeon, J., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caraveo, P. A., Cecchi, C., Chaves, R. C. G., Chekhtman, A., Chiang, J., Claus, R., Conrad, J., Cutini, S., D'Ammando, F., de Palma, F., Dermer, C. D., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Fukazawa, Y., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Germani, S., Giglietto, N., Giroletti, M., Godfrey, G., Guiriec, S., Hadasch, D., Hanabata, Y., Hayashida, M., Hou, X., Iyyani, S., Jackson, M. S., Kocevski, D., Kuss, M., Larsson, J., Larsson, S., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lundman, C., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Mizuno, T., Monzani, M. E., Moretti, E., Morselli, A., Murgia, S., Nuss, E., Nymark, T., Ohno, M., Omodei, N., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Racusin, J. L., Rainò, S., Razzano, M., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Roth, M., Ryde, F., Sanchez, D. A., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Stamatikos, M., Tibaldo, L., Tinivella, M., Usher, T. L., Vandenbroucke, J., Vasileiou, V., Vianello, G., Vitale, V., Waite, A. P., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., Burgess, J. M., Bhat, P. N., Bissaldi, E., Briggs, M. S., Connaughton, V., Fishman, G., Fitzpatrick, G., Foley, S., Gruber, D., Kippen, R. M., Kouveliotou, C., Jenke, P., McBreen, S., McGlynn, S., Meegan, C., Paciesas, W. S., Pelassa, V., Preece, R., Tierney, D., von Kienlin, A., Wilson-Hodge, C., Xiong, S., and Pe'er, A. GRB110721A: An extreme peak energy and signatures of the photosphere. United States: N. p., 2012. Web. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/757/2/L31.
Axelsson, M., Baldini, L., Barbiellini, G., Baring, M. G., Bellazzini, R., Bregeon, J., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caraveo, P. A., Cecchi, C., Chaves, R. C. G., Chekhtman, A., Chiang, J., Claus, R., Conrad, J., Cutini, S., D'Ammando, F., de Palma, F., Dermer, C. D., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Fukazawa, Y., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Germani, S., Giglietto, N., Giroletti, M., Godfrey, G., Guiriec, S., Hadasch, D., Hanabata, Y., Hayashida, M., Hou, X., Iyyani, S., Jackson, M. S., Kocevski, D., Kuss, M., Larsson, J., Larsson, S., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lundman, C., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Mizuno, T., Monzani, M. E., Moretti, E., Morselli, A., Murgia, S., Nuss, E., Nymark, T., Ohno, M., Omodei, N., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Racusin, J. L., Rainò, S., Razzano, M., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Roth, M., Ryde, F., Sanchez, D. A., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Stamatikos, M., Tibaldo, L., Tinivella, M., Usher, T. L., Vandenbroucke, J., Vasileiou, V., Vianello, G., Vitale, V., Waite, A. P., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., Burgess, J. M., Bhat, P. N., Bissaldi, E., Briggs, M. S., Connaughton, V., Fishman, G., Fitzpatrick, G., Foley, S., Gruber, D., Kippen, R. M., Kouveliotou, C., Jenke, P., McBreen, S., McGlynn, S., Meegan, C., Paciesas, W. S., Pelassa, V., Preece, R., Tierney, D., von Kienlin, A., Wilson-Hodge, C., Xiong, S., & Pe'er, A. GRB110721A: An extreme peak energy and signatures of the photosphere. United States. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/757/2/L31.
Axelsson, M., Baldini, L., Barbiellini, G., Baring, M. G., Bellazzini, R., Bregeon, J., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caraveo, P. A., Cecchi, C., Chaves, R. C. G., Chekhtman, A., Chiang, J., Claus, R., Conrad, J., Cutini, S., D'Ammando, F., de Palma, F., Dermer, C. D., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Fukazawa, Y., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Germani, S., Giglietto, N., Giroletti, M., Godfrey, G., Guiriec, S., Hadasch, D., Hanabata, Y., Hayashida, M., Hou, X., Iyyani, S., Jackson, M. S., Kocevski, D., Kuss, M., Larsson, J., Larsson, S., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lundman, C., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Mizuno, T., Monzani, M. E., Moretti, E., Morselli, A., Murgia, S., Nuss, E., Nymark, T., Ohno, M., Omodei, N., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Racusin, J. L., Rainò, S., Razzano, M., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Roth, M., Ryde, F., Sanchez, D. A., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Stamatikos, M., Tibaldo, L., Tinivella, M., Usher, T. L., Vandenbroucke, J., Vasileiou, V., Vianello, G., Vitale, V., Waite, A. P., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., Burgess, J. M., Bhat, P. N., Bissaldi, E., Briggs, M. S., Connaughton, V., Fishman, G., Fitzpatrick, G., Foley, S., Gruber, D., Kippen, R. M., Kouveliotou, C., Jenke, P., McBreen, S., McGlynn, S., Meegan, C., Paciesas, W. S., Pelassa, V., Preece, R., Tierney, D., von Kienlin, A., Wilson-Hodge, C., Xiong, S., and Pe'er, A. Mon . "GRB110721A: An extreme peak energy and signatures of the photosphere". United States. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/757/2/L31. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1356670.
@article{osti_1356670,
title = {GRB110721A: An extreme peak energy and signatures of the photosphere},
author = {Axelsson, M. and Baldini, L. and Barbiellini, G. and Baring, M. G. and Bellazzini, R. and Bregeon, J. and Brigida, M. and Bruel, P. and Buehler, R. and Caliandro, G. A. and Cameron, R. A. and Caraveo, P. A. and Cecchi, C. and Chaves, R. C. G. and Chekhtman, A. and Chiang, J. and Claus, R. and Conrad, J. and Cutini, S. and D'Ammando, F. and de Palma, F. and Dermer, C. D. and do Couto e Silva, E. and Drell, P. S. and Favuzzi, C. and Fegan, S. J. and Ferrara, E. C. and Focke, W. B. and Fukazawa, Y. and Fusco, P. and Gargano, F. and Gasparrini, D. and Gehrels, N. and Germani, S. and Giglietto, N. and Giroletti, M. and Godfrey, G. and Guiriec, S. and Hadasch, D. and Hanabata, Y. and Hayashida, M. and Hou, X. and Iyyani, S. and Jackson, M. S. and Kocevski, D. and Kuss, M. and Larsson, J. and Larsson, S. and Longo, F. and Loparco, F. and Lundman, C. and Mazziotta, M. N. and McEnery, J. E. and Mizuno, T. and Monzani, M. E. and Moretti, E. and Morselli, A. and Murgia, S. and Nuss, E. and Nymark, T. and Ohno, M. and Omodei, N. and Pesce-Rollins, M. and Piron, F. and Pivato, G. and Racusin, J. L. and Rainò, S. and Razzano, M. and Razzaque, S. and Reimer, A. and Roth, M. and Ryde, F. and Sanchez, D. A. and Sgrò, C. and Siskind, E. J. and Spandre, G. and Spinelli, P. and Stamatikos, M. and Tibaldo, L. and Tinivella, M. and Usher, T. L. and Vandenbroucke, J. and Vasileiou, V. and Vianello, G. and Vitale, V. and Waite, A. P. and Winer, B. L. and Wood, K. S. and Burgess, J. M. and Bhat, P. N. and Bissaldi, E. and Briggs, M. S. and Connaughton, V. and Fishman, G. and Fitzpatrick, G. and Foley, S. and Gruber, D. and Kippen, R. M. and Kouveliotou, C. and Jenke, P. and McBreen, S. and McGlynn, S. and Meegan, C. and Paciesas, W. S. and Pelassa, V. and Preece, R. and Tierney, D. and von Kienlin, A. and Wilson-Hodge, C. and Xiong, S. and Pe'er, A.},
abstractNote = {GRB110721A was observed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope using its two instruments, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM). This burst consisted of one major emission episode which lasted for ~24.5 s (in the GBM) and had a peak flux of (5.7 ± 0.2) × 10–5 erg s–1 cm–2. The time-resolved emission spectrum is best modeled with a combination of a Band function and a blackbody spectrum. The peak energy of the Band component was initially 15 ± 2 MeV, which is the highest value ever detected in a GRB. We made this measurement by combining GBM/BGO data with LAT Low Energy events to achieve continuous 10-100 MeV coverage. The peak energy later decreased as a power law in time with an index of –1.89 ± 0.10. The temperature of the blackbody component also decreased, starting from ~80 keV, and the decay showed a significant break after ~2 s. The spectrum provides strong constraints on the standard synchrotron model, indicating that alternative mechanisms may give rise to the emission at these energies.},
doi = {10.1088/2041-8205/757/2/L31},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal Letters},
number = 2,
volume = 757,
place = {United States},
year = {2012},
month = {9}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 85 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

FERMI OBSERVATIONS OF GRB 090902B: A DISTINCT SPECTRAL COMPONENT IN THE PROMPT AND DELAYED EMISSION
journal, November 2009


FERMI OBSERVATIONS OF GRB 090510: A SHORT-HARD GAMMA-RAY BURST WITH AN ADDITIONAL, HARD POWER-LAW COMPONENT FROM 10 keV TO GeV ENERGIES
journal, May 2010


THE LARGE AREA TELESCOPE ON THE FERMI GAMMA-RAY SPACE TELESCOPE MISSION
journal, May 2009


BATSE observations of gamma-ray burst spectra. I - Spectral diversity
journal, August 1993

  • Band, D.; Matteson, J.; Ford, L.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 413
  • DOI: 10.1086/172995

Observation of an Extra Emission around 2 MeV in the Spectrum of an Intense Gamma‐Ray Burst
journal, July 2000

  • Barat, C.; Lestrade, J. P.; Dezalay, J. ‐P.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 538, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/309097

Collisional mechanism for gamma-ray burst emission: Collisional mechanism for GRB emission
journal, August 2010


Ground-based calibration and characterization of the Fermi gamma-ray burst monitor detectors
journal, January 2009


CONSTRAINTS ON THE SYNCHROTRON SHOCK MODEL FOR THE FERMI GRB 090820A OBSERVED BY GAMMA-RAY BURST MONITOR
journal, October 2011

  • Burgess, J. Michael; Preece, Robert D.; Baring, Matthew G.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 741, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/741/1/24

BATSE observations of gamma-ray burst spectra. 2: Peak energy evolution in bright, long bursts
journal, January 1995

  • Ford, L. A.; Band, D. L.; Matteson, J. L.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 439
  • DOI: 10.1086/175174

The peak energy of dissipative gamma-ray burst photospheres: Peak energy of dissipative GRB photospheres
journal, April 2012


Broadband, Time-Dependent, Spectroscopy of the Brightest Bursts Observed by Batse lad and Egret tasc
journal, April 2009


Are gamma-ray bursts optically thick?
journal, September 1986


Detection of a Thermal Spectral Component in the Prompt Emission of grb 100724b
journal, January 2011

  • Guiriec, Sylvain; Connaughton, Valerie; Briggs, Michael S.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 727, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/727/2/L33

The Complete Spectral Catalog of Bright BATSE Gamma‐Ray Bursts
journal, September 2006

  • Kaneko, Yuki; Preece, Robert D.; Briggs, Michael S.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 166, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/505911

Non-Thermal Emission from the Photospheres of Gamma-Ray Burst Outflows. i. High-Frequency Tails
journal, November 2010


THE FERMI GAMMA-RAY BURST MONITOR
journal, August 2009


X‐Ray–rich Gamma‐Ray Bursts, Photospheres, and Variability
journal, October 2002

  • Meszaros, P.; Ramirez‐Ruiz, E.; Rees, M. J.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 578, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/342611

Attributes of Pulses in Long Bright Gamma-Ray Bursts
journal, March 1996

  • Norris, J. P.; Nemiroff, R. J.; Bonnell, J. T.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 459
  • DOI: 10.1086/176902

Gamma-ray bursters at cosmological distances
journal, September 1986

  • Paczynski, B.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 308
  • DOI: 10.1086/184740

A Theory of Multicolor Blackbody Emission from Relativistically Expanding Plasmas
journal, April 2011


The connection between thermal and non-thermal emission in gamma-ray bursts: general considerations and GRB 090902B as a case study: Thermal and non-thermal emission in GRBs
journal, December 2011


Observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts at high energies by the Fermi Large Area Telescope—two years review
conference, January 2011

  • Pelassa, Véronique; McEnery, J. E.; Racusin, J. L.
  • GAMMA RAY BURSTS 2010, AIP Conference Proceedings
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3621734

The Synchrotron Shock Model Confronts a “Line of Death” in the BATSE Gamma-Ray Burst Data
journal, October 1998

  • Preece, R. D.; Briggs, M. S.; Mallozzi, R. S.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 506, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/311644

Dissipative Photosphere Models of Gamma‐Ray Bursts and X‐Ray Flashes
journal, August 2005

  • Rees, M. J.; Meszaros, P.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 628, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/430818

The Cooling Behavior of Thermal Pulses in Gamma‐Ray Bursts
journal, October 2004

  • Ryde, Felix
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 614, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/423782

Is Thermal Emission in Gamma-Ray Bursts Ubiquitous?
journal, May 2005

  • Ryde, Felix
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 625, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/431239

Identification and Properties of the Photospheric Emission in Grb090902b
journal, January 2010


Quasi-Blackbody Component and Radiative Efficiency of the Prompt Emission of Gamma-Ray Bursts
journal, August 2009


Observational evidence of dissipative photospheres in gamma-ray bursts: Evidence of dissipative photospheres in GRBs
journal, June 2011


Studies in Astronomical Time Series Analysis. V. Bayesian Blocks, a New Method to Analyze Structure in Photon Counting Data
journal, September 1998

  • Scargle, Jeffrey D.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 504, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/306064

Gamma-Ray Bursts from Magnetized Collisionally Heated jets
journal, August 2011

  • Vurm, Indrek; Beloborodov, Andrei M.; Poutanen, Juri
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 738, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/738/1/77

EXTENDED EMISSION FROM THE PSR B1259–63/SS 2883 BINARY DETECTED WITH CHANDRA
journal, February 2011

  • Pavlov, George G.; Chang, Chulhoon; Kargaltsev, Oleg
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 730, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/730/1/2

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    The Fermi GBM gamma-ray burst time-resolved spectral catalog: brightest bursts in the first four years
    journal, March 2016


    Synchrotron cooling in energetic gamma-ray bursts observed by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor
    journal, December 2014


    Energetic and Broad Band Spectral Distribution of Emission from Astronomical Jets
    journal, July 2013


    Hot Electromagnetic Outflows. ii. jet Breakout
    journal, July 2013


    Variable jet properties in GRB 110721A: time resolved observations of the jet photosphere
    journal, June 2013

    • Iyyani, S.; Ryde, F.; Axelsson, M.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 433, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt863

    Energetic and Broad Band Spectral Distribution of Emission from Astronomical Jets
    journal, July 2013


    Synchrotron cooling in energetic gamma-ray bursts observed by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor
    journal, December 2014


    The Fermi GBM gamma-ray burst time-resolved spectral catalog: brightest bursts in the first four years
    journal, March 2016


    Hot Electromagnetic Outflows. ii. jet Breakout
    journal, July 2013


    Variable jet properties in GRB 110721A: time resolved observations of the jet photosphere
    journal, June 2013

    • Iyyani, S.; Ryde, F.; Axelsson, M.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 433, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt863