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Title: The Fermi Large Area Telescope on Orbit: Event Classification, Instrument Response Functions, and Calibration

Abstract

The Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT, hereafter LAT), the primary instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view, high-energy γ-ray telescope, covering the energy range from 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. During the first years of the mission, the LAT team has gained considerable insight into the in-flight performance of the instrument. Accordingly, we have updated the analysis used to reduce LAT data for public release as well as the instrument response functions (IRFs), the description of the instrument performance provided for data analysis. In this study, we describe the effects that motivated these updates. Furthermore, we discuss how we originally derived IRFs from Monte Carlo simulations and later corrected those IRFs for discrepancies observed between flight and simulated data. We also give details of the validations performed using flight data and quantify the residual uncertainties in the IRFs. In conclusion, we describe techniques the LAT team has developed to propagate those uncertainties into estimates of the systematic errors on common measurements such as fluxes and spectra of astrophysical sources.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA)
Contributing Org.:
Fermi-LAT Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1356610
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 203; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 0067-0049
Publisher:
American Astronomical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; instrumentation detectors; instrumentation; data analysis methods; observational methods; telescopes

Citation Formats

Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Albert, A., Allafort, A., Atwood, W. B., Axelsson, M., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Bissaldi, E., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bogart, J. R., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bottacini, E., Bouvier, A., Brandt, T. J., Bregeon, J., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Burnett, T. H., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caraveo, P. A., Casandjian, J. M., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Çelik, Ö., Charles, E., Chaves, R. C. G., Chekhtman, A., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Conrad, J., Corbet, R., Cutini, S., D’Ammando, F., Davis, D. S., de Angelis, A., DeKlotz, M., de Palma, F., Dermer, C. D., Digel, S. W., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Drlica-Wagner, A., Dubois, R., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Fortin, P., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Giebels, B., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Grove, J. E., Guiriec, S., Hadasch, D., Hayashida, M., Hays, E., Horan, D., Hou, X., Hughes, R. E., Jackson, M. S., Jogler, T., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, R. P., Johnson, T. J., Johnson, W. N., Kamae, T., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Kerr, M., Knödlseder, J., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Lavalley, C., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Mazziotta, M. N., McConville, W., McEnery, J. E., Mehault, J., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Naumann-Godo, M., Nemmen, R., Nishino, S., Norris, J. P., Nuss, E., Ohno, M., Ohsugi, T., Okumura, A., Omodei, N., Orienti, M., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Perkins, J. S., Pesce-Rollins, M., Pierbattista, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Racusin, J. L., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Reyes, L. C., Ritz, S., Rochester, L. S., Romoli, C., Roth, M., Sadrozinski, H. F. -W., Sanchez, D. A., Saz Parkinson, P. M., Sbarra, C., Scargle, J. D., Sgrò, C., Siegal-Gaskins, J., Siskind, E. J., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Stephens, T. E., Suson, D. J., Tajima, H., Takahashi, H., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J. G., Thayer, J. B., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Tinivella, M., Tosti, G., Troja, E., Usher, T. L., Vandenbroucke, J., Van Klaveren, B., Vasileiou, V., Vianello, G., Vitale, V., Waite, A. P., Wallace, E., Winer, B. L., Wood, D. L., Wood, K. S., Wood, M., Yang, Z., and Zimmer, S. The Fermi Large Area Telescope on Orbit: Event Classification, Instrument Response Functions, and Calibration. United States: N. p., 2012. Web. doi:10.1088/0067-0049/203/1/4.
Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Albert, A., Allafort, A., Atwood, W. B., Axelsson, M., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Bissaldi, E., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bogart, J. R., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bottacini, E., Bouvier, A., Brandt, T. J., Bregeon, J., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Burnett, T. H., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caraveo, P. A., Casandjian, J. M., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Çelik, Ö., Charles, E., Chaves, R. C. G., Chekhtman, A., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Conrad, J., Corbet, R., Cutini, S., D’Ammando, F., Davis, D. S., de Angelis, A., DeKlotz, M., de Palma, F., Dermer, C. D., Digel, S. W., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Drlica-Wagner, A., Dubois, R., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Fortin, P., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Giebels, B., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Grove, J. E., Guiriec, S., Hadasch, D., Hayashida, M., Hays, E., Horan, D., Hou, X., Hughes, R. E., Jackson, M. S., Jogler, T., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, R. P., Johnson, T. J., Johnson, W. N., Kamae, T., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Kerr, M., Knödlseder, J., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Lavalley, C., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Mazziotta, M. N., McConville, W., McEnery, J. E., Mehault, J., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Naumann-Godo, M., Nemmen, R., Nishino, S., Norris, J. P., Nuss, E., Ohno, M., Ohsugi, T., Okumura, A., Omodei, N., Orienti, M., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Perkins, J. S., Pesce-Rollins, M., Pierbattista, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Racusin, J. L., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Reyes, L. C., Ritz, S., Rochester, L. S., Romoli, C., Roth, M., Sadrozinski, H. F. -W., Sanchez, D. A., Saz Parkinson, P. M., Sbarra, C., Scargle, J. D., Sgrò, C., Siegal-Gaskins, J., Siskind, E. J., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Stephens, T. E., Suson, D. J., Tajima, H., Takahashi, H., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J. G., Thayer, J. B., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Tinivella, M., Tosti, G., Troja, E., Usher, T. L., Vandenbroucke, J., Van Klaveren, B., Vasileiou, V., Vianello, G., Vitale, V., Waite, A. P., Wallace, E., Winer, B. L., Wood, D. L., Wood, K. S., Wood, M., Yang, Z., & Zimmer, S. The Fermi Large Area Telescope on Orbit: Event Classification, Instrument Response Functions, and Calibration. United States. doi:10.1088/0067-0049/203/1/4.
Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Albert, A., Allafort, A., Atwood, W. B., Axelsson, M., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Bissaldi, E., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bogart, J. R., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bottacini, E., Bouvier, A., Brandt, T. J., Bregeon, J., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Burnett, T. H., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caraveo, P. A., Casandjian, J. M., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Çelik, Ö., Charles, E., Chaves, R. C. G., Chekhtman, A., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Conrad, J., Corbet, R., Cutini, S., D’Ammando, F., Davis, D. S., de Angelis, A., DeKlotz, M., de Palma, F., Dermer, C. D., Digel, S. W., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Drlica-Wagner, A., Dubois, R., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Fortin, P., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Giebels, B., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Grove, J. E., Guiriec, S., Hadasch, D., Hayashida, M., Hays, E., Horan, D., Hou, X., Hughes, R. E., Jackson, M. S., Jogler, T., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, R. P., Johnson, T. J., Johnson, W. N., Kamae, T., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Kerr, M., Knödlseder, J., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Lavalley, C., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Mazziotta, M. N., McConville, W., McEnery, J. E., Mehault, J., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Naumann-Godo, M., Nemmen, R., Nishino, S., Norris, J. P., Nuss, E., Ohno, M., Ohsugi, T., Okumura, A., Omodei, N., Orienti, M., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Perkins, J. S., Pesce-Rollins, M., Pierbattista, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Racusin, J. L., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Reyes, L. C., Ritz, S., Rochester, L. S., Romoli, C., Roth, M., Sadrozinski, H. F. -W., Sanchez, D. A., Saz Parkinson, P. M., Sbarra, C., Scargle, J. D., Sgrò, C., Siegal-Gaskins, J., Siskind, E. J., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Stephens, T. E., Suson, D. J., Tajima, H., Takahashi, H., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J. G., Thayer, J. B., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Tinivella, M., Tosti, G., Troja, E., Usher, T. L., Vandenbroucke, J., Van Klaveren, B., Vasileiou, V., Vianello, G., Vitale, V., Waite, A. P., Wallace, E., Winer, B. L., Wood, D. L., Wood, K. S., Wood, M., Yang, Z., and Zimmer, S. Fri . "The Fermi Large Area Telescope on Orbit: Event Classification, Instrument Response Functions, and Calibration". United States. doi:10.1088/0067-0049/203/1/4. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1356610.
@article{osti_1356610,
title = {The Fermi Large Area Telescope on Orbit: Event Classification, Instrument Response Functions, and Calibration},
author = {Ackermann, M. and Ajello, M. and Albert, A. and Allafort, A. and Atwood, W. B. and Axelsson, M. and Baldini, L. and Ballet, J. and Barbiellini, G. and Bastieri, D. and Bechtol, K. and Bellazzini, R. and Bissaldi, E. and Blandford, R. D. and Bloom, E. D. and Bogart, J. R. and Bonamente, E. and Borgland, A. W. and Bottacini, E. and Bouvier, A. and Brandt, T. J. and Bregeon, J. and Brigida, M. and Bruel, P. and Buehler, R. and Burnett, T. H. and Buson, S. and Caliandro, G. A. and Cameron, R. A. and Caraveo, P. A. and Casandjian, J. M. and Cavazzuti, E. and Cecchi, C. and Çelik, Ö. and Charles, E. and Chaves, R. C. G. and Chekhtman, A. and Cheung, C. C. and Chiang, J. and Ciprini, S. and Claus, R. and Cohen-Tanugi, J. and Conrad, J. and Corbet, R. and Cutini, S. and D’Ammando, F. and Davis, D. S. and de Angelis, A. and DeKlotz, M. and de Palma, F. and Dermer, C. D. and Digel, S. W. and do Couto e Silva, E. and Drell, P. S. and Drlica-Wagner, A. and Dubois, R. and Favuzzi, C. and Fegan, S. J. and Ferrara, E. C. and Focke, W. B. and Fortin, P. and Fukazawa, Y. and Funk, S. and Fusco, P. and Gargano, F. and Gasparrini, D. and Gehrels, N. and Giebels, B. and Giglietto, N. and Giordano, F. and Giroletti, M. and Glanzman, T. and Godfrey, G. and Grenier, I. A. and Grove, J. E. and Guiriec, S. and Hadasch, D. and Hayashida, M. and Hays, E. and Horan, D. and Hou, X. and Hughes, R. E. and Jackson, M. S. and Jogler, T. and Jóhannesson, G. and Johnson, R. P. and Johnson, T. J. and Johnson, W. N. and Kamae, T. and Katagiri, H. and Kataoka, J. and Kerr, M. and Knödlseder, J. and Kuss, M. and Lande, J. and Larsson, S. and Latronico, L. and Lavalley, C. and Lemoine-Goumard, M. and Longo, F. and Loparco, F. and Lott, B. and Lovellette, M. N. and Lubrano, P. and Mazziotta, M. N. and McConville, W. and McEnery, J. E. and Mehault, J. and Michelson, P. F. and Mitthumsiri, W. and Mizuno, T. and Moiseev, A. A. and Monte, C. and Monzani, M. E. and Morselli, A. and Moskalenko, I. V. and Murgia, S. and Naumann-Godo, M. and Nemmen, R. and Nishino, S. and Norris, J. P. and Nuss, E. and Ohno, M. and Ohsugi, T. and Okumura, A. and Omodei, N. and Orienti, M. and Orlando, E. and Ormes, J. F. and Paneque, D. and Panetta, J. H. and Perkins, J. S. and Pesce-Rollins, M. and Pierbattista, M. and Piron, F. and Pivato, G. and Porter, T. A. and Racusin, J. L. and Rainò, S. and Rando, R. and Razzano, M. and Razzaque, S. and Reimer, A. and Reimer, O. and Reposeur, T. and Reyes, L. C. and Ritz, S. and Rochester, L. S. and Romoli, C. and Roth, M. and Sadrozinski, H. F. -W. and Sanchez, D. A. and Saz Parkinson, P. M. and Sbarra, C. and Scargle, J. D. and Sgrò, C. and Siegal-Gaskins, J. and Siskind, E. J. and Spandre, G. and Spinelli, P. and Stephens, T. E. and Suson, D. J. and Tajima, H. and Takahashi, H. and Tanaka, T. and Thayer, J. G. and Thayer, J. B. and Thompson, D. J. and Tibaldo, L. and Tinivella, M. and Tosti, G. and Troja, E. and Usher, T. L. and Vandenbroucke, J. and Van Klaveren, B. and Vasileiou, V. and Vianello, G. and Vitale, V. and Waite, A. P. and Wallace, E. and Winer, B. L. and Wood, D. L. and Wood, K. S. and Wood, M. and Yang, Z. and Zimmer, S.},
abstractNote = {The Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT, hereafter LAT), the primary instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view, high-energy γ-ray telescope, covering the energy range from 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. During the first years of the mission, the LAT team has gained considerable insight into the in-flight performance of the instrument. Accordingly, we have updated the analysis used to reduce LAT data for public release as well as the instrument response functions (IRFs), the description of the instrument performance provided for data analysis. In this study, we describe the effects that motivated these updates. Furthermore, we discuss how we originally derived IRFs from Monte Carlo simulations and later corrected those IRFs for discrepancies observed between flight and simulated data. We also give details of the validations performed using flight data and quantify the residual uncertainties in the IRFs. In conclusion, we describe techniques the LAT team has developed to propagate those uncertainties into estimates of the systematic errors on common measurements such as fluxes and spectra of astrophysical sources.},
doi = {10.1088/0067-0049/203/1/4},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series},
number = 1,
volume = 203,
place = {United States},
year = {2012},
month = {10}
}

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    Discovery of the VHE gamma-ray source HESS J1832-093 in the vicinity of SNR G22.7-0.2
    journal, November 2014

    • Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 446, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu2148

    Unprecedented study of the broadband emission of Mrk 421 during flaring activity in March 2010
    journal, May 2015


    Long-term multiwavelength studies of high-redshift blazar 0836+710
    journal, July 2013


    Probing the very high energy γ-ray spectral curvature in the blazar PG 1553+113 with the MAGIC telescopes
    journal, May 2015

    • Aleksić, J.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 450, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv811

    Very high energy outburst of Markarian 501 in May 2009
    journal, October 2016


    Location of γ -ray emission and magnetic field strengths in OJ 287
    journal, January 2017


    The TANAMI Multiwavelength Program: Dynamic spectral energy distributions of southern blazars
    journal, June 2016


    The denoised, deconvolved, and decomposed Fermi γ -ray sky : An application of the D
    journal, September 2015


    Discovery of the supernova remnant G351.0-5.4
    journal, August 2014


    Deep view of the Large Magellanic Cloud with six years of Fermi -LAT observations
    journal, January 2016


    A MST catalogue of γ -ray source candidates above 10 GeV and at Galactic latitudes higher than 20°
    journal, October 2018


    A fast, very-high-energy γ -ray flare from BL Lacertae during a period of multi-wavelength activity in June 2015
    journal, March 2019


    Search for gamma-ray spectral modulations in Galactic pulsars
    journal, April 2018

    • Majumdar, Jhilik; Calore, Francesca; Horns, Dieter
    • Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 2018, Issue 04
    • DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2018/04/048

    PSR J2021+4026 IN THE GAMMA CYGNI REGION: THE FIRST VARIABLE γ-RAY PULSAR SEEN BY THE Fermi LAT
    journal, October 2013


    Long-term multiwavelength studies of high-redshift blazar 0836+710
    journal, July 2013


    Discovery of the supernova remnant G351.0-5.4
    journal, August 2014


    Unprecedented study of the broadband emission of Mrk 421 during flaring activity in March 2010
    journal, May 2015


    The denoised, deconvolved, and decomposed Fermi γ -ray sky : An application of the D
    journal, September 2015


    Location of γ -ray emission and magnetic field strengths in OJ 287
    journal, January 2017


    Deep view of the Large Magellanic Cloud with six years of Fermi -LAT observations
    journal, January 2016


    The TANAMI Multiwavelength Program: Dynamic spectral energy distributions of southern blazars
    journal, June 2016


    Very high energy outburst of Markarian 501 in May 2009
    journal, October 2016


    A MST catalogue of γ -ray source candidates above 10 GeV and at Galactic latitudes higher than 20°
    journal, October 2018


    A fast, very-high-energy γ -ray flare from BL Lacertae during a period of multi-wavelength activity in June 2015
    journal, March 2019


    JET EMISSION IN YOUNG RADIO SOURCES: A FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE GAMMA-RAY VIEW
    journal, December 2013


    Search for Cosmic-Ray-Induced Gamma-Ray Emission in Galaxy Clusters
    journal, April 2014


    The Connection Between the Radio jet and the Gamma-Ray Emission in the Radio Galaxy 3c 120
    journal, July 2015


    Search for gamma-ray spectral modulations in Galactic pulsars
    journal, April 2018

    • Majumdar, Jhilik; Calore, Francesca; Horns, Dieter
    • Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 2018, Issue 04
    • DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2018/04/048

    PSR J2021+4026 IN THE GAMMA CYGNI REGION: THE FIRST VARIABLE γ-RAY PULSAR SEEN BY THE Fermi LAT
    journal, October 2013


    Discovery of the VHE gamma-ray source HESS J1832-093 in the vicinity of SNR G22.7-0.2
    journal, November 2014

    • Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 446, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu2148

    Probing the very high energy γ-ray spectral curvature in the blazar PG 1553+113 with the MAGIC telescopes
    journal, May 2015

    • Aleksić, J.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 450, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv811

    Unexpected dip in the solar gamma-ray spectrum
    journal, September 2018


    FIRST DETECTION IN GAMMA-RAYS OF A YOUNG RADIO GALAXY: FERMI -LAT OBSERVATIONS OF THE COMPACT SYMMETRIC OBJECT PKS 1718−649
    journal, April 2016


    Broadband characterisation of the very intense TeV flares of the blazar 1ES 1959+650 in 2016
    journal, June 2020


    Discovery of the VHE gamma-ray source HESS J1832-093 in the vicinity of SNR G22.7-0.2
    text, January 2015

    • Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.
    • Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Hamburg
    • DOI: 10.3204/pubdb-2016-00464