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Title: The FERMI All-Sky Variability Analysis: A List of Flaring Gamma-Ray Sources and the Search for Transients in Our Galaxy

Abstract

In this paper, we present the Fermi All-sky Variability Analysis (FAVA), a tool to systematically study the variability of the gamma-ray sky measured by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. In addition, for each direction on the sky, FAVA compares the number of gamma-rays observed in a given time window to the number of gamma-rays expected for the average emission detected from that direction. This method is used in weekly time intervals to derive a list of 215 flaring gamma-ray sources. Finally, we proceed to discuss the 27 sources found at Galactic latitudes smaller than 10° and show that, despite their low latitudes, most of them are likely of extragalactic origin.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
Contributing Org.:
Fermi-LAT Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1356586
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astrophysical Journal
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 771; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-637X
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS

Citation Formats

Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Albert, A., Allafort, A., Antolini, E., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Bottacini, E., Bouvier, A., Brandt, T. J., Bregeon, J., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caraveo, P. A., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Chiaro, G., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Conrad, J., Cutini, S., Dalton, M., D'Ammando, F., de Angelis, A., de Palma, F., Dermer, C. D., Di Venere, L., Drell, P. S., Drlica-Wagner, A., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Franckowiak, A., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Germani, S., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Grove, J. E., Guiriec, S., Hadasch, D., Hanabata, Y., Harding, A. K., Hayashida, M., Hays, E., Hewitt, J., Hill, A. B., Horan, D., Hou, X., Hughes, R. E., Inoue, Y., Jackson, M. S., Jogler, T., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, W. N., Kamae, T., Kataoka, J., Kawano, T., Knödlseder, J., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Mayer, M., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nemmen, R., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Okumura, A., Omodei, N., Orienti, M., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Perkins, J. S., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Romoli, C., Roth, M., Sánchez-Conde, M., Scargle, J. D., Schulz, A., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Suson, D. J., Takahashi, H., Takeuchi, Y., Thayer, J. G., Thayer, J. B., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Tinivella, M., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Troja, E., Tronconi, V., Usher, T. L., Vandenbroucke, J., Vasileiou, V., Vianello, G., Vitale, V., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., Wood, M., and Yang, Z. The FERMI All-Sky Variability Analysis: A List of Flaring Gamma-Ray Sources and the Search for Transients in Our Galaxy. United States: N. p., 2013. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/771/1/57.
Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Albert, A., Allafort, A., Antolini, E., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Bottacini, E., Bouvier, A., Brandt, T. J., Bregeon, J., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caraveo, P. A., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Chiaro, G., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Conrad, J., Cutini, S., Dalton, M., D'Ammando, F., de Angelis, A., de Palma, F., Dermer, C. D., Di Venere, L., Drell, P. S., Drlica-Wagner, A., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Franckowiak, A., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Germani, S., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Grove, J. E., Guiriec, S., Hadasch, D., Hanabata, Y., Harding, A. K., Hayashida, M., Hays, E., Hewitt, J., Hill, A. B., Horan, D., Hou, X., Hughes, R. E., Inoue, Y., Jackson, M. S., Jogler, T., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, W. N., Kamae, T., Kataoka, J., Kawano, T., Knödlseder, J., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Mayer, M., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nemmen, R., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Okumura, A., Omodei, N., Orienti, M., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Perkins, J. S., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Romoli, C., Roth, M., Sánchez-Conde, M., Scargle, J. D., Schulz, A., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Suson, D. J., Takahashi, H., Takeuchi, Y., Thayer, J. G., Thayer, J. B., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Tinivella, M., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Troja, E., Tronconi, V., Usher, T. L., Vandenbroucke, J., Vasileiou, V., Vianello, G., Vitale, V., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., Wood, M., & Yang, Z. The FERMI All-Sky Variability Analysis: A List of Flaring Gamma-Ray Sources and the Search for Transients in Our Galaxy. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/771/1/57.
Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Albert, A., Allafort, A., Antolini, E., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Bottacini, E., Bouvier, A., Brandt, T. J., Bregeon, J., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caraveo, P. A., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Chiaro, G., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Conrad, J., Cutini, S., Dalton, M., D'Ammando, F., de Angelis, A., de Palma, F., Dermer, C. D., Di Venere, L., Drell, P. S., Drlica-Wagner, A., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Franckowiak, A., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Germani, S., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Grove, J. E., Guiriec, S., Hadasch, D., Hanabata, Y., Harding, A. K., Hayashida, M., Hays, E., Hewitt, J., Hill, A. B., Horan, D., Hou, X., Hughes, R. E., Inoue, Y., Jackson, M. S., Jogler, T., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, W. N., Kamae, T., Kataoka, J., Kawano, T., Knödlseder, J., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Mayer, M., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nemmen, R., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Okumura, A., Omodei, N., Orienti, M., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Perkins, J. S., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Romoli, C., Roth, M., Sánchez-Conde, M., Scargle, J. D., Schulz, A., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Suson, D. J., Takahashi, H., Takeuchi, Y., Thayer, J. G., Thayer, J. B., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Tinivella, M., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Troja, E., Tronconi, V., Usher, T. L., Vandenbroucke, J., Vasileiou, V., Vianello, G., Vitale, V., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., Wood, M., and Yang, Z. Mon . "The FERMI All-Sky Variability Analysis: A List of Flaring Gamma-Ray Sources and the Search for Transients in Our Galaxy". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/771/1/57. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1356586.
@article{osti_1356586,
title = {The FERMI All-Sky Variability Analysis: A List of Flaring Gamma-Ray Sources and the Search for Transients in Our Galaxy},
author = {Ackermann, M. and Ajello, M. and Albert, A. and Allafort, A. and Antolini, E. and Baldini, L. and Ballet, J. and Barbiellini, G. and Bastieri, D. and Bechtol, K. and Bellazzini, R. and Blandford, R. D. and Bloom, E. D. and Bonamente, E. and Bottacini, E. and Bouvier, A. and Brandt, T. J. and Bregeon, J. and Brigida, M. and Bruel, P. and Buehler, R. and Buson, S. and Caliandro, G. A. and Cameron, R. A. and Caraveo, P. A. and Cavazzuti, E. and Cecchi, C. and Charles, E. and Chekhtman, A. and Cheung, C. C. and Chiang, J. and Chiaro, G. and Ciprini, S. and Claus, R. and Cohen-Tanugi, J. and Conrad, J. and Cutini, S. and Dalton, M. and D'Ammando, F. and de Angelis, A. and de Palma, F. and Dermer, C. D. and Di Venere, L. and Drell, P. S. and Drlica-Wagner, A. and Favuzzi, C. and Fegan, S. J. and Ferrara, E. C. and Focke, W. B. and Franckowiak, A. and Fukazawa, Y. and Funk, S. and Fusco, P. and Gargano, F. and Gasparrini, D. and Germani, S. and Giglietto, N. and Giordano, F. and Giroletti, M. and Glanzman, T. and Godfrey, G. and Grenier, I. A. and Grondin, M. -H. and Grove, J. E. and Guiriec, S. and Hadasch, D. and Hanabata, Y. and Harding, A. K. and Hayashida, M. and Hays, E. and Hewitt, J. and Hill, A. B. and Horan, D. and Hou, X. and Hughes, R. E. and Inoue, Y. and Jackson, M. S. and Jogler, T. and Jóhannesson, G. and Johnson, W. N. and Kamae, T. and Kataoka, J. and Kawano, T. and Knödlseder, J. and Kuss, M. and Lande, J. and Larsson, S. and Latronico, L. and Lemoine-Goumard, M. and Longo, F. and Loparco, F. and Lott, B. and Lovellette, M. N. and Lubrano, P. and Mayer, M. and Mazziotta, M. N. and McEnery, J. E. and Michelson, P. F. and Mitthumsiri, W. and Mizuno, T. and Monte, C. and Monzani, M. E. and Morselli, A. and Moskalenko, I. V. and Murgia, S. and Nemmen, R. and Nuss, E. and Ohsugi, T. and Okumura, A. and Omodei, N. and Orienti, M. and Orlando, E. and Ormes, J. F. and Paneque, D. and Panetta, J. H. and Perkins, J. S. and Pesce-Rollins, M. and Piron, F. and Pivato, G. and Porter, T. A. and Rainò, S. and Rando, R. and Razzano, M. and Reimer, A. and Reimer, O. and Romoli, C. and Roth, M. and Sánchez-Conde, M. and Scargle, J. D. and Schulz, A. and Sgrò, C. and Siskind, E. J. and Spandre, G. and Spinelli, P. and Suson, D. J. and Takahashi, H. and Takeuchi, Y. and Thayer, J. G. and Thayer, J. B. and Thompson, D. J. and Tibaldo, L. and Tinivella, M. and Torres, D. F. and Tosti, G. and Troja, E. and Tronconi, V. and Usher, T. L. and Vandenbroucke, J. and Vasileiou, V. and Vianello, G. and Vitale, V. and Winer, B. L. and Wood, K. S. and Wood, M. and Yang, Z.},
abstractNote = {In this paper, we present the Fermi All-sky Variability Analysis (FAVA), a tool to systematically study the variability of the gamma-ray sky measured by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. In addition, for each direction on the sky, FAVA compares the number of gamma-rays observed in a given time window to the number of gamma-rays expected for the average emission detected from that direction. This method is used in weekly time intervals to derive a list of 215 flaring gamma-ray sources. Finally, we proceed to discuss the 27 sources found at Galactic latitudes smaller than 10° and show that, despite their low latitudes, most of them are likely of extragalactic origin.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/771/1/57},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
number = 1,
volume = 771,
place = {United States},
year = {2013},
month = {6}
}

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Works referenced in this record:

FERMI /LAT OBSERVATIONS OF LS 5039
journal, October 2009


Modulated High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from the Microquasar Cygnus X-3
journal, November 2009


FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE FIRST SOURCE CATALOG
journal, May 2010

  • Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.
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FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATION OF A GAMMA-RAY SOURCE AT THE POSITION OF ETA CARINAE
journal, October 2010


Gamma-Ray Emission Concurrent with the Nova in the Symbiotic Binary V407 Cygni
journal, August 2010


THE FERMI -LAT HIGH-LATITUDE SURVEY: SOURCE COUNT DISTRIBUTIONS AND THE ORIGIN OF THE EXTRAGALACTIC DIFFUSE BACKGROUND
journal, August 2010


DISCOVERY OF HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM THE BINARY SYSTEM PSR B1259–63/LS 2883 AROUND PERIASTRON WITH FERMI
journal, June 2011


FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF TWO GAMMA-RAY EMISSION COMPONENTS FROM THE QUIESCENT SUN
journal, June 2011


Gamma-Ray Flares from the Crab Nebula
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THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE ON ORBIT: EVENT CLASSIFICATION, INSTRUMENT RESPONSE FUNCTIONS, AND CALIBRATION
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THE RADIO/GAMMA-RAY CONNECTION IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN THE ERA OF THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE
journal, October 2011


THE SECOND CATALOG OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI DETECTED BY THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE
journal, December 2011


FERMI -LAT OBSERVATIONS OF THE DIFFUSE γ-RAY EMISSION: IMPLICATIONS FOR COSMIC RAYS AND THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM
journal, April 2012


Periodic Emission from the Gamma-Ray Binary 1FGL J1018.6-5856
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Simultaneous multiwavelength observations of the second exceptional γ -ray flare of PKS 2155–304 in July 2006
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Discovery of the binary pulsar PSR B1259-63 in very-high-energy gamma rays around periastron with HESS
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Simultaneous HESS and Chandra observations of Sagitarius A$^{\star}$ during an X-ray flare
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Variable Very-High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from the Microquasar LS I +61 303
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THE LARGE AREA TELESCOPE ON THE FERMI GAMMA-RAY SPACE TELESCOPE MISSION
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Gamma-Ray Activity in the crab Nebula: the Exceptional Flare of 2011 April
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CHANDRA X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE TWO BRIGHTEST UNIDENTIFIED HIGH GALACTIC LATITUDE FERMI -LAT γ-RAY SOURCES
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Long-Term Monitoring of the High-Energy γ-Ray Emission from ls i +61°303 and ls 5039
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Hess J0632+057: a new Gamma-Ray Binary?
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γ-RAY SPECTRAL EVOLUTION OF NGC 1275 OBSERVED WITH FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE
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Otakar Borůvka on minimum spanning tree problem Translation of both the 1926 papers, comments, history
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Search for variable gamma-ray emission from the Galactic plane in the Fermi data
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FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE SECOND SOURCE CATALOG
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Gamma-ray follow-up studies on η Carinae
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DISCOVERY OF A GeV BLAZAR SHINING THROUGH THE GALACTIC PLANE
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    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Comparing Long-duration Gamma-Ray Flares and High-energy Solar Energetic Particles
    journal, July 2019


    Comparing Long-duration Gamma-Ray Flares and High-energy Solar Energetic Particles
    journal, July 2019