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Title: The first Fermi-LAT catalog of sources above 10 GeV

Here, we present a catalog of γ-ray sources at energies above 10 GeV based on data from the Large Area Telescope (LAT) accumulated during the first 3 yr of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope mission. The first Fermi-LAT catalog of >10 GeV sources (1FHL) has 514 sources. For each source we present location, spectrum, a measure of variability, and associations with cataloged sources at other wavelengths. We found that 449 (87%) could be associated with known sources, of which 393 (76% of the 1FHL sources) are active galactic nuclei. Of the 27 sources associated with known pulsars, we find 20 (12) to have significant pulsations in the range >10 GeV (>25 GeV). In this work we also report that, at energies above 10 GeV, unresolved sources account for 27% ± 8% of the isotropic γ-ray background, while the unresolved Galactic population contributes only at the few percent level to the Galactic diffuse background. We also highlight the subset of the 1FHL sources that are best candidates for detection at energies above 50-100 GeV with current and future ground-based γ-ray observatories.
Authors:
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Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-76SF00515
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 209; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 0067-0049
Publisher:
American Astronomical Society
Research Org:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; 46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; catalogs; gamma rays: general
OSTI Identifier:
1356555

Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Allafort, A., Atwood, W. B., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Belfiore, A., Bellazzini, R., Bernieri, E., Bissaldi, E., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Brandt, T. J., Bregeon, J., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Burnett, T. H., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Campana, R., Caraveo, P. A., Casandjian, J. M., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Charles, E., Chaves, R. C. G., Chekhtman, A., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Chiaro, G., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Cominsky, L. R., Conrad, J., Cutini, S., D'Ammando, F., de Angelis, A., de Palma, F., Dermer, C. D., Desiante, R., Digel, S. W., Di Venere, L., Drell, P. S., Drlica-Wagner, A., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Fortin, P., Franckowiak, A., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Germani, S., Giglietto, N., Giommi, P., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Godfrey, G., Gomez-Vargas, G. A., Grenier, I. A., Guiriec, S., Hadasch, D., Hanabata, Y., Harding, A. K., Hayashida, M., Hays, E., Hewitt, J., Hill, A. B., Horan, D., Hughes, R. E., Jogler, T., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, T. J., Johnson, W. N., Kamae, T., Kataoka, J., Kawano, T., Knödlseder, J., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Massaro, E., Mayer, M., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Mehault, J., Michelson, P. F., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nemmen, R., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Okumura, A., Orienti, M., Ormes, J. F., Paneque, D., Perkins, J. S., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Razzano, M., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Ritz, S., Romani, R. W., Roth, M., Saz Parkinson, P. M., Schulz, A., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Smith, D. A., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Stawarz, Łukasz, Strong, A. W., Suson, D. J., Takahashi, H., Thayer, J. G., Thayer, J. B., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Tinivella, M., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Troja, E., Uchiyama, Y., Usher, T. L., Vandenbroucke, J., Vasileiou, V., Vianello, G., Vitale, V., Werner, M., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., and Wood, M.. The first Fermi-LAT catalog of sources above 10 GeV. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1088/0067-0049/209/2/34.
Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Allafort, A., Atwood, W. B., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Belfiore, A., Bellazzini, R., Bernieri, E., Bissaldi, E., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Brandt, T. J., Bregeon, J., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Burnett, T. H., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Campana, R., Caraveo, P. A., Casandjian, J. M., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Charles, E., Chaves, R. C. G., Chekhtman, A., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Chiaro, G., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Cominsky, L. R., Conrad, J., Cutini, S., D'Ammando, F., de Angelis, A., de Palma, F., Dermer, C. D., Desiante, R., Digel, S. W., Di Venere, L., Drell, P. S., Drlica-Wagner, A., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Fortin, P., Franckowiak, A., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Germani, S., Giglietto, N., Giommi, P., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Godfrey, G., Gomez-Vargas, G. A., Grenier, I. A., Guiriec, S., Hadasch, D., Hanabata, Y., Harding, A. K., Hayashida, M., Hays, E., Hewitt, J., Hill, A. B., Horan, D., Hughes, R. E., Jogler, T., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, T. J., Johnson, W. N., Kamae, T., Kataoka, J., Kawano, T., Knödlseder, J., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Massaro, E., Mayer, M., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Mehault, J., Michelson, P. F., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nemmen, R., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Okumura, A., Orienti, M., Ormes, J. F., Paneque, D., Perkins, J. S., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Razzano, M., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Ritz, S., Romani, R. W., Roth, M., Saz Parkinson, P. M., Schulz, A., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Smith, D. A., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Stawarz, Łukasz, Strong, A. W., Suson, D. J., Takahashi, H., Thayer, J. G., Thayer, J. B., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Tinivella, M., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Troja, E., Uchiyama, Y., Usher, T. L., Vandenbroucke, J., Vasileiou, V., Vianello, G., Vitale, V., Werner, M., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., & Wood, M.. The first Fermi-LAT catalog of sources above 10 GeV. United States. doi:10.1088/0067-0049/209/2/34.
Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Allafort, A., Atwood, W. B., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Belfiore, A., Bellazzini, R., Bernieri, E., Bissaldi, E., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Brandt, T. J., Bregeon, J., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Burnett, T. H., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Campana, R., Caraveo, P. A., Casandjian, J. M., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Charles, E., Chaves, R. C. G., Chekhtman, A., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Chiaro, G., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Cominsky, L. R., Conrad, J., Cutini, S., D'Ammando, F., de Angelis, A., de Palma, F., Dermer, C. D., Desiante, R., Digel, S. W., Di Venere, L., Drell, P. S., Drlica-Wagner, A., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Fortin, P., Franckowiak, A., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Germani, S., Giglietto, N., Giommi, P., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Godfrey, G., Gomez-Vargas, G. A., Grenier, I. A., Guiriec, S., Hadasch, D., Hanabata, Y., Harding, A. K., Hayashida, M., Hays, E., Hewitt, J., Hill, A. B., Horan, D., Hughes, R. E., Jogler, T., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, T. J., Johnson, W. N., Kamae, T., Kataoka, J., Kawano, T., Knödlseder, J., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Massaro, E., Mayer, M., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Mehault, J., Michelson, P. F., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nemmen, R., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Okumura, A., Orienti, M., Ormes, J. F., Paneque, D., Perkins, J. S., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Razzano, M., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Ritz, S., Romani, R. W., Roth, M., Saz Parkinson, P. M., Schulz, A., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Smith, D. A., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Stawarz, Łukasz, Strong, A. W., Suson, D. J., Takahashi, H., Thayer, J. G., Thayer, J. B., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Tinivella, M., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Troja, E., Uchiyama, Y., Usher, T. L., Vandenbroucke, J., Vasileiou, V., Vianello, G., Vitale, V., Werner, M., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., and Wood, M.. 2013. "The first Fermi-LAT catalog of sources above 10 GeV". United States. doi:10.1088/0067-0049/209/2/34. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1356555.
@article{osti_1356555,
title = {The first Fermi-LAT catalog of sources above 10 GeV},
author = {Ackermann, M. and Ajello, M. and Allafort, A. and Atwood, W. B. and Baldini, L. and Ballet, J. and Barbiellini, G. and Bastieri, D. and Bechtol, K. and Belfiore, A. and Bellazzini, R. and Bernieri, E. and Bissaldi, E. and Bloom, E. D. and Bonamente, E. and Brandt, T. J. and Bregeon, J. and Brigida, M. and Bruel, P. and Buehler, R. and Burnett, T. H. and Buson, S. and Caliandro, G. A. and Cameron, R. A. and Campana, R. and Caraveo, P. A. and Casandjian, J. M. and Cavazzuti, E. and Cecchi, C. and Charles, E. and Chaves, R. C. G. and Chekhtman, A. and Cheung, C. C. and Chiang, J. and Chiaro, G. and Ciprini, S. and Claus, R. and Cohen-Tanugi, J. and Cominsky, L. R. and Conrad, J. and Cutini, S. and D'Ammando, F. and de Angelis, A. and de Palma, F. and Dermer, C. D. and Desiante, R. and Digel, S. W. and Di Venere, L. and Drell, P. S. and Drlica-Wagner, A. and Favuzzi, C. and Fegan, S. J. and Ferrara, E. C. and Focke, W. B. and Fortin, P. and Franckowiak, A. and Funk, S. and Fusco, P. and Gargano, F. and Gasparrini, D. and Gehrels, N. and Germani, S. and Giglietto, N. and Giommi, P. and Giordano, F. and Giroletti, M. and Godfrey, G. and Gomez-Vargas, G. A. and Grenier, I. A. and Guiriec, S. and Hadasch, D. and Hanabata, Y. and Harding, A. K. and Hayashida, M. and Hays, E. and Hewitt, J. and Hill, A. B. and Horan, D. and Hughes, R. E. and Jogler, T. and Jóhannesson, G. and Johnson, A. S. and Johnson, T. J. and Johnson, W. N. and Kamae, T. and Kataoka, J. and Kawano, T. and Knödlseder, J. and Kuss, M. and Lande, J. and Larsson, S. and Latronico, L. and Lemoine-Goumard, M. and Longo, F. and Loparco, F. and Lott, B. and Lovellette, M. N. and Lubrano, P. and Massaro, E. and Mayer, M. and Mazziotta, M. N. and McEnery, J. E. and Mehault, J. and Michelson, P. F. and Mizuno, T. and Moiseev, A. A. and Monzani, M. E. and Morselli, A. and Moskalenko, I. V. and Murgia, S. and Nemmen, R. and Nuss, E. and Ohsugi, T. and Okumura, A. and Orienti, M. and Ormes, J. F. and Paneque, D. and Perkins, J. S. and Pesce-Rollins, M. and Piron, F. and Pivato, G. and Porter, T. A. and Rainò, S. and Razzano, M. and Reimer, A. and Reimer, O. and Reposeur, T. and Ritz, S. and Romani, R. W. and Roth, M. and Saz Parkinson, P. M. and Schulz, A. and Sgrò, C. and Siskind, E. J. and Smith, D. A. and Spandre, G. and Spinelli, P. and Stawarz, Łukasz and Strong, A. W. and Suson, D. J. and Takahashi, H. and Thayer, J. G. and Thayer, J. B. and Thompson, D. J. and Tibaldo, L. and Tinivella, M. and Torres, D. F. and Tosti, G. and Troja, E. and Uchiyama, Y. and Usher, T. L. and Vandenbroucke, J. and Vasileiou, V. and Vianello, G. and Vitale, V. and Werner, M. and Winer, B. L. and Wood, K. S. and Wood, M.},
abstractNote = {Here, we present a catalog of γ-ray sources at energies above 10 GeV based on data from the Large Area Telescope (LAT) accumulated during the first 3 yr of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope mission. The first Fermi-LAT catalog of >10 GeV sources (1FHL) has 514 sources. For each source we present location, spectrum, a measure of variability, and associations with cataloged sources at other wavelengths. We found that 449 (87%) could be associated with known sources, of which 393 (76% of the 1FHL sources) are active galactic nuclei. Of the 27 sources associated with known pulsars, we find 20 (12) to have significant pulsations in the range >10 GeV (>25 GeV). In this work we also report that, at energies above 10 GeV, unresolved sources account for 27% ± 8% of the isotropic γ-ray background, while the unresolved Galactic population contributes only at the few percent level to the Galactic diffuse background. We also highlight the subset of the 1FHL sources that are best candidates for detection at energies above 50-100 GeV with current and future ground-based γ-ray observatories.},
doi = {10.1088/0067-0049/209/2/34},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series},
number = 2,
volume = 209,
place = {United States},
year = {2013},
month = {11}
}