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Title: A panchromatic view of the restless SN 2009ip reveals the explosive ejection of a massive star envelope

The double explosion of SN 2009ip in 2012 raises questions about our understanding of the late stages of massive star evolution. We present a comprehensive study of SN 2009ip during its remarkable rebrightenings. High-cadence photometric and spectroscopic observations from the GeV to the radio band obtained from a variety of ground-based and space facilities (including the Very Large Array, Swift, Fermi, Hubble Space Telescope, and XMM) constrain SN 2009ip to be a low energy (E ~ 10 50 erg for an ejecta mass ~0.5 M⊙) and asymmetric explosion in a complex medium shaped by multiple eruptions of the restless progenitor star. Most of the energy is radiated as a result of the shock breaking out through a dense shell of material located at ~5 × 10 14 cm with M ~ 0.1 M⊙, ejected by the precursor outburst ~40 days before the major explosion. Here, we interpret the NIR excess of emission as signature of material located further out, the origin of which has to be connected with documented mass-loss episodes in the previous years. This modeling predicts bright neutrino emission associated with the shock break-out if the cosmic-ray energy is comparable to the radiated energy. We connect this phenomenologymore » with the explosive ejection of the outer layers of the massive progenitor star, which later interacted with material deposited in the surroundings by previous eruptions. In future observations will reveal if the massive luminous progenitor star survived. Irrespective of whether the explosion was terminal, SN 2009ip brought to light the existence of new channels for sustained episodic mass loss, the physical origin of which has yet to be identified.« less
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Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-76SF00515
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astrophysical Journal
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 780; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-637X
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Research Org:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Contributing Orgs:
Fermi LAT Collaboration
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; stars: mass-loss; supernovae: individual (SN2009ip)
OSTI Identifier:
1356541

Margutti, R., Milisavljevic, D., Soderberg, A. M., Chornock, R., Zauderer, B. A., Murase, K., Guidorzi, C., Sanders, N. E., Kuin, P., Fransson, C., Levesque, E. M., Chandra, P., Berger, E., Bianco, F. B., Brown, P. J., Challis, P., Chatzopoulos, E., Cheung, C. C., Choi, C., Chomiuk, L., Chugai, N., Contreras, C., Drout, M. R., Fesen, R., Foley, R. J., Fong, W., Friedman, A. S., Gall, C., Gehrels, N., Hjorth, J., Hsiao, E., Kirshner, R., Im, M., Leloudas, G., Lunnan, R., Marion, G. H., Martin, J., Morrell, N., Neugent, K. F., Omodei, N., Phillips, M. M., Rest, A., Silverman, J. M., Strader, J., Stritzinger, M. D., Szalai, T., Utterback, N. B., Vinko, J., Wheeler, J. C., Arnett, D., Campana, S., Chevalier, R., Ginsburg, A., Kamble, A., Roming, P. W. A., Pritchard, T., and Stringfellow, G.. A panchromatic view of the restless SN 2009ip reveals the explosive ejection of a massive star envelope. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/780/1/21.
Margutti, R., Milisavljevic, D., Soderberg, A. M., Chornock, R., Zauderer, B. A., Murase, K., Guidorzi, C., Sanders, N. E., Kuin, P., Fransson, C., Levesque, E. M., Chandra, P., Berger, E., Bianco, F. B., Brown, P. J., Challis, P., Chatzopoulos, E., Cheung, C. C., Choi, C., Chomiuk, L., Chugai, N., Contreras, C., Drout, M. R., Fesen, R., Foley, R. J., Fong, W., Friedman, A. S., Gall, C., Gehrels, N., Hjorth, J., Hsiao, E., Kirshner, R., Im, M., Leloudas, G., Lunnan, R., Marion, G. H., Martin, J., Morrell, N., Neugent, K. F., Omodei, N., Phillips, M. M., Rest, A., Silverman, J. M., Strader, J., Stritzinger, M. D., Szalai, T., Utterback, N. B., Vinko, J., Wheeler, J. C., Arnett, D., Campana, S., Chevalier, R., Ginsburg, A., Kamble, A., Roming, P. W. A., Pritchard, T., & Stringfellow, G.. A panchromatic view of the restless SN 2009ip reveals the explosive ejection of a massive star envelope. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/780/1/21.
Margutti, R., Milisavljevic, D., Soderberg, A. M., Chornock, R., Zauderer, B. A., Murase, K., Guidorzi, C., Sanders, N. E., Kuin, P., Fransson, C., Levesque, E. M., Chandra, P., Berger, E., Bianco, F. B., Brown, P. J., Challis, P., Chatzopoulos, E., Cheung, C. C., Choi, C., Chomiuk, L., Chugai, N., Contreras, C., Drout, M. R., Fesen, R., Foley, R. J., Fong, W., Friedman, A. S., Gall, C., Gehrels, N., Hjorth, J., Hsiao, E., Kirshner, R., Im, M., Leloudas, G., Lunnan, R., Marion, G. H., Martin, J., Morrell, N., Neugent, K. F., Omodei, N., Phillips, M. M., Rest, A., Silverman, J. M., Strader, J., Stritzinger, M. D., Szalai, T., Utterback, N. B., Vinko, J., Wheeler, J. C., Arnett, D., Campana, S., Chevalier, R., Ginsburg, A., Kamble, A., Roming, P. W. A., Pritchard, T., and Stringfellow, G.. 2013. "A panchromatic view of the restless SN 2009ip reveals the explosive ejection of a massive star envelope". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/780/1/21. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1356541.
@article{osti_1356541,
title = {A panchromatic view of the restless SN 2009ip reveals the explosive ejection of a massive star envelope},
author = {Margutti, R. and Milisavljevic, D. and Soderberg, A. M. and Chornock, R. and Zauderer, B. A. and Murase, K. and Guidorzi, C. and Sanders, N. E. and Kuin, P. and Fransson, C. and Levesque, E. M. and Chandra, P. and Berger, E. and Bianco, F. B. and Brown, P. J. and Challis, P. and Chatzopoulos, E. and Cheung, C. C. and Choi, C. and Chomiuk, L. and Chugai, N. and Contreras, C. and Drout, M. R. and Fesen, R. and Foley, R. J. and Fong, W. and Friedman, A. S. and Gall, C. and Gehrels, N. and Hjorth, J. and Hsiao, E. and Kirshner, R. and Im, M. and Leloudas, G. and Lunnan, R. and Marion, G. H. and Martin, J. and Morrell, N. and Neugent, K. F. and Omodei, N. and Phillips, M. M. and Rest, A. and Silverman, J. M. and Strader, J. and Stritzinger, M. D. and Szalai, T. and Utterback, N. B. and Vinko, J. and Wheeler, J. C. and Arnett, D. and Campana, S. and Chevalier, R. and Ginsburg, A. and Kamble, A. and Roming, P. W. A. and Pritchard, T. and Stringfellow, G.},
abstractNote = {The double explosion of SN 2009ip in 2012 raises questions about our understanding of the late stages of massive star evolution. We present a comprehensive study of SN 2009ip during its remarkable rebrightenings. High-cadence photometric and spectroscopic observations from the GeV to the radio band obtained from a variety of ground-based and space facilities (including the Very Large Array, Swift, Fermi, Hubble Space Telescope, and XMM) constrain SN 2009ip to be a low energy (E ~ 1050 erg for an ejecta mass ~0.5 M⊙) and asymmetric explosion in a complex medium shaped by multiple eruptions of the restless progenitor star. Most of the energy is radiated as a result of the shock breaking out through a dense shell of material located at ~5 × 1014 cm with M ~ 0.1 M⊙, ejected by the precursor outburst ~40 days before the major explosion. Here, we interpret the NIR excess of emission as signature of material located further out, the origin of which has to be connected with documented mass-loss episodes in the previous years. This modeling predicts bright neutrino emission associated with the shock break-out if the cosmic-ray energy is comparable to the radiated energy. We connect this phenomenology with the explosive ejection of the outer layers of the massive progenitor star, which later interacted with material deposited in the surroundings by previous eruptions. In future observations will reveal if the massive luminous progenitor star survived. Irrespective of whether the explosion was terminal, SN 2009ip brought to light the existence of new channels for sustained episodic mass loss, the physical origin of which has yet to be identified.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/780/1/21},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
number = 1,
volume = 780,
place = {United States},
year = {2013},
month = {12}
}