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Title: Inferred Cosmic-Ray Spectrum from Fermi Large Area Telescope γ -Ray Observations of Earth’s Limb

Accurate measurements of cosmic-ray (CR) species by ATIC-2, CREAM, and PAMELA recently reveal an unexpected hardening in the proton and He spectra above a few hundred GeV, a gradual softening of the spectra just below a few hundred GeV, and a harder spectrum of He compared to that of protons. These newly discovered features may offer a clue to the origin of high-energy CRs. Here, we use the Fermi Large Area Telescope observations of the γ -ray emission from Earth’s limb for an indirect measurement of the local spectrum of CR protons in the energy range ~ 90 GeV – 6 TeV (derived from a photon energy range 15 GeV–1 TeV). Our analysis shows that single power law and broken power law spectra fit the data equally well and yield a proton spectrum with index 2.68 ± 0.04 and 2.61 ± 0.08 above ~ 200 GeV , respectively.
Authors:
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Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-76SF00515
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 112; Journal Issue: 15; Journal ID: ISSN 0031-9007
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Research Org:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Contributing Orgs:
Fermi LAT Collaboration
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS
OSTI Identifier:
1356529

Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Albert, A., Allafort, A., Baldini, L., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Bottacini, E., Bouvier, A., Brandt, T. J., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caraveo, P. A., Cecchi, C., Charles, E., Chaves, R. C. G., Chekhtman, A., Chiang, J., Chiaro, G., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Conrad, J., Cutini, S., Dalton, M., D’Ammando, F., de Angelis, A., de Palma, F., Dermer, C. D., Digel, S. W., Di Venere, L., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Drlica-Wagner, A., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Franckowiak, A., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Germani, S., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Gomez-Vargas, G. A., Grenier, I. A., Grove, J. E., Guiriec, S., Gustafsson, M., Hadasch, D., Hanabata, Y., Harding, A. K., Hayashida, M., Hayashi, K., Hewitt, J. W., Horan, D., Hou, X., Hughes, R. E., Inoue, Y., Jackson, M. S., Jogler, T., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Kamae, T., Kawano, T., Knödlseder, J., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Mayer, M., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Mehault, J., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nemmen, R., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Okumura, A., Orienti, M., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Perkins, J. S., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Ritz, S., Roth, M., Schaal, M., Schulz, A., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Strong, A. W., Takahashi, H., Takeuchi, Y., Thayer, J. G., Thayer, J. B., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Tinivella, M., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Troja, E., Tronconi, V., Usher, T. L., Vandenbroucke, J., Vasileiou, V., Vianello, G., Vitale, V., Werner, M., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., Wood, M., and Yang, Z.. Inferred Cosmic-Ray Spectrum from Fermi Large Area Telescope γ -Ray Observations of Earth’s Limb. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.151103.
Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Albert, A., Allafort, A., Baldini, L., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Bottacini, E., Bouvier, A., Brandt, T. J., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caraveo, P. A., Cecchi, C., Charles, E., Chaves, R. C. G., Chekhtman, A., Chiang, J., Chiaro, G., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Conrad, J., Cutini, S., Dalton, M., D’Ammando, F., de Angelis, A., de Palma, F., Dermer, C. D., Digel, S. W., Di Venere, L., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Drlica-Wagner, A., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Franckowiak, A., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Germani, S., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Gomez-Vargas, G. A., Grenier, I. A., Grove, J. E., Guiriec, S., Gustafsson, M., Hadasch, D., Hanabata, Y., Harding, A. K., Hayashida, M., Hayashi, K., Hewitt, J. W., Horan, D., Hou, X., Hughes, R. E., Inoue, Y., Jackson, M. S., Jogler, T., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Kamae, T., Kawano, T., Knödlseder, J., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Mayer, M., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Mehault, J., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nemmen, R., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Okumura, A., Orienti, M., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Perkins, J. S., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Ritz, S., Roth, M., Schaal, M., Schulz, A., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Strong, A. W., Takahashi, H., Takeuchi, Y., Thayer, J. G., Thayer, J. B., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Tinivella, M., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Troja, E., Tronconi, V., Usher, T. L., Vandenbroucke, J., Vasileiou, V., Vianello, G., Vitale, V., Werner, M., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., Wood, M., & Yang, Z.. Inferred Cosmic-Ray Spectrum from Fermi Large Area Telescope γ -Ray Observations of Earth’s Limb. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.151103.
Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Albert, A., Allafort, A., Baldini, L., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Bottacini, E., Bouvier, A., Brandt, T. J., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caraveo, P. A., Cecchi, C., Charles, E., Chaves, R. C. G., Chekhtman, A., Chiang, J., Chiaro, G., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Conrad, J., Cutini, S., Dalton, M., D’Ammando, F., de Angelis, A., de Palma, F., Dermer, C. D., Digel, S. W., Di Venere, L., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Drlica-Wagner, A., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Franckowiak, A., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Germani, S., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Gomez-Vargas, G. A., Grenier, I. A., Grove, J. E., Guiriec, S., Gustafsson, M., Hadasch, D., Hanabata, Y., Harding, A. K., Hayashida, M., Hayashi, K., Hewitt, J. W., Horan, D., Hou, X., Hughes, R. E., Inoue, Y., Jackson, M. S., Jogler, T., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Kamae, T., Kawano, T., Knödlseder, J., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Mayer, M., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Mehault, J., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nemmen, R., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Okumura, A., Orienti, M., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Perkins, J. S., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Ritz, S., Roth, M., Schaal, M., Schulz, A., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Strong, A. W., Takahashi, H., Takeuchi, Y., Thayer, J. G., Thayer, J. B., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Tinivella, M., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Troja, E., Tronconi, V., Usher, T. L., Vandenbroucke, J., Vasileiou, V., Vianello, G., Vitale, V., Werner, M., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., Wood, M., and Yang, Z.. 2014. "Inferred Cosmic-Ray Spectrum from Fermi Large Area Telescope γ -Ray Observations of Earth’s Limb". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.151103. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1356529.
@article{osti_1356529,
title = {Inferred Cosmic-Ray Spectrum from Fermi Large Area Telescope γ -Ray Observations of Earth’s Limb},
author = {Ackermann, M. and Ajello, M. and Albert, A. and Allafort, A. and Baldini, L. and Barbiellini, G. and Bastieri, D. and Bechtol, K. and Bellazzini, R. and Blandford, R. D. and Bloom, E. D. and Bonamente, E. and Bottacini, E. and Bouvier, A. and Brandt, T. J. and Brigida, M. and Bruel, P. and Buehler, R. and Buson, S. and Caliandro, G. A. and Cameron, R. A. and Caraveo, P. A. and Cecchi, C. and Charles, E. and Chaves, R. C. G. and Chekhtman, A. and Chiang, J. and Chiaro, G. and Ciprini, S. and Claus, R. and Cohen-Tanugi, J. and Conrad, J. and Cutini, S. and Dalton, M. and D’Ammando, F. and de Angelis, A. and de Palma, F. and Dermer, C. D. and Digel, S. W. and Di Venere, L. and do Couto e Silva, E. and Drell, P. S. and Drlica-Wagner, A. and Favuzzi, C. and Fegan, S. J. and Ferrara, E. C. and Focke, W. B. and Franckowiak, A. and Fukazawa, Y. and Funk, S. and Fusco, P. and Gargano, F. and Gasparrini, D. and Germani, S. and Giglietto, N. and Giordano, F. and Giroletti, M. and Glanzman, T. and Godfrey, G. and Gomez-Vargas, G. A. and Grenier, I. A. and Grove, J. E. and Guiriec, S. and Gustafsson, M. and Hadasch, D. and Hanabata, Y. and Harding, A. K. and Hayashida, M. and Hayashi, K. and Hewitt, J. W. and Horan, D. and Hou, X. and Hughes, R. E. and Inoue, Y. and Jackson, M. S. and Jogler, T. and Jóhannesson, G. and Johnson, A. S. and Kamae, T. and Kawano, T. and Knödlseder, J. and Kuss, M. and Lande, J. and Larsson, S. and Latronico, L. and Longo, F. and Loparco, F. and Lovellette, M. N. and Lubrano, P. and Mayer, M. and Mazziotta, M. N. and McEnery, J. E. and Mehault, J. and Michelson, P. F. and Mitthumsiri, W. and Mizuno, T. and Moiseev, A. A. and Monte, C. and Monzani, M. E. and Morselli, A. and Moskalenko, I. V. and Murgia, S. and Nemmen, R. and Nuss, E. and Ohsugi, T. and Okumura, A. and Orienti, M. and Orlando, E. and Ormes, J. F. and Paneque, D. and Panetta, J. H. and Perkins, J. S. and Pesce-Rollins, M. and Piron, F. and Pivato, G. and Porter, T. A. and Rainò, S. and Rando, R. and Razzano, M. and Razzaque, S. and Reimer, A. and Reimer, O. and Ritz, S. and Roth, M. and Schaal, M. and Schulz, A. and Sgrò, C. and Siskind, E. J. and Spandre, G. and Spinelli, P. and Strong, A. W. and Takahashi, H. and Takeuchi, Y. and Thayer, J. G. and Thayer, J. B. and Thompson, D. J. and Tibaldo, L. and Tinivella, M. and Torres, D. F. and Tosti, G. and Troja, E. and Tronconi, V. and Usher, T. L. and Vandenbroucke, J. and Vasileiou, V. and Vianello, G. and Vitale, V. and Werner, M. and Winer, B. L. and Wood, K. S. and Wood, M. and Yang, Z.},
abstractNote = {Accurate measurements of cosmic-ray (CR) species by ATIC-2, CREAM, and PAMELA recently reveal an unexpected hardening in the proton and He spectra above a few hundred GeV, a gradual softening of the spectra just below a few hundred GeV, and a harder spectrum of He compared to that of protons. These newly discovered features may offer a clue to the origin of high-energy CRs. Here, we use the Fermi Large Area Telescope observations of the γ -ray emission from Earth’s limb for an indirect measurement of the local spectrum of CR protons in the energy range ~ 90 GeV – 6 TeV (derived from a photon energy range 15 GeV–1 TeV). Our analysis shows that single power law and broken power law spectra fit the data equally well and yield a proton spectrum with index 2.68 ± 0.04 and 2.61 ± 0.08 above ~ 200 GeV , respectively.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.151103},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
number = 15,
volume = 112,
place = {United States},
year = {2014},
month = {4}
}