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Title: MAGIC gamma-ray and multi-frequency observations of flat spectrum radio quasar PKS 1510-089 in early 2012

Aims. We report amongst more than fifty blazars detected in very high energy (VHE, E> 100 GeV) γ rays, only three belong to the subclass of flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs). The detection of FSRQs in the VHE range is challenging, mainly because of their soft spectra in the GeV-TeV regime. MAGIC observed PKS 1510-089 (z = 0.36) starting 2012 February 3 until April 3 during a high activity state in the high energy (HE, E> 100 MeV) γ-ray band observed by AGILE and Fermi. MAGIC observations result in the detection of a source with significance of 6.0 standard deviations (σ). We study the multi-frequency behaviour of the source at the epoch of MAGIC observation, collecting quasi-simultaneous data at radio and optical (GASP-WEBT and F-Gamma collaborations, REM, Steward, Perkins, Liverpool, OVRO, and VLBA telescopes), X-ray (Swift satellite), and HE γ-ray frequencies. Methods. We study the VHE γ-ray emission, together with the multi-frequency light curves, 43 GHz radio maps, and spectral energy distribution (SED) of the source. The quasi-simultaneous multi-frequency SED from the millimetre radio band to VHE γ rays is modelled with a one-zone inverse Compton model. We study two different origins of the seed photons for the inverse Comptonmore » scattering, namely the infrared torus and a slow sheath surrounding the jet around the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) core. Results. We find that the VHE γ-ray emission detected from PKS 1510-089 in 2012 February-April agrees with the previous VHE observations of the source from 2009 March-April. We find no statistically significant variability during the MAGIC observations on daily, weekly, or monthly time scales, while the other two known VHE FSRQs (3C 279 and PKS 1222+216) have shown daily scale to sub-hour variability. The γ-ray SED combining AGILE, Fermi and MAGIC data joins smoothly and shows no hint of a break. The multi-frequency light curves suggest a common origin for the millimetre radio and HE γ-ray emission, and the HE γ-ray flaring starts when the new component is ejected from the 43 GHz VLBA core and the studied SED models fit the data well. However, the fast HE γ-ray variability requires that within the modelled large emitting region, more compact regions must exist. Lastly, we suggest that these observed signatures would be most naturally explained by a turbulent plasma flowing at a relativistic speed down the jet and crossing a standing conical shock.« less
Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more »; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-76SF00515
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astronomy and Astrophysics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 569; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-6361
Publisher:
EDP Sciences
Research Org:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Contributing Orgs:
MAGIC Collaboration; AGILE Collaboration; Fermi-LAT Collaboration
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; galaxies: active; galaxies: jets; gamma rays: galaxies; quasars: individual: PKS 1510-089
OSTI Identifier:
1356441

Aleksić, J., Ansoldi, S., Antonelli, L. A., Antoranz, P., Babic, A., Bangale, P., Barres de Almeida, U., Barrio, J. A., Becerra González, J., Bednarek, W., Bernardini, E., Biland, A., Blanch, O., Bonnefoy, S., Bonnoli, G., Borracci, F., Bretz, T., Carmona, E., Carosi, A., Carreto Fidalgo, D., Colin, P., Colombo, E., Contreras, J. L., Cortina, J., Covino, S., Da Vela, P., Dazzi, F., De Angelis, A., De Caneva, G., De Lotto, B., Delgado Mendez, C., Doert, M., Domínguez, A., Dominis Prester, D., Dorner, D., Doro, M., Einecke, S., Eisenacher, D., Elsaesser, D., Farina, E., Ferenc, D., Fonseca, M. V., Font, L., Frantzen, K., Fruck, C., García López, R. J., Garczarczyk, M., Garrido Terrats, D., Gaug, M., Godinović, N., González Muñoz, A., Gozzini, S. R., Hadasch, D., Hayashida, M., Herrera, J., Herrero, A., Hildebrand, D., Hose, J., Hrupec, D., Idec, W., Kadenius, V., Kellermann, H., Kodani, K., Konno, Y., Krause, J., Kubo, H., Kushida, J., La Barbera, A., Lelas, D., Lewandowska, N., Lindfors, E., Lombardi, S., López, M., López-Coto, R., López-Oramas, A., Lorenz, E., Lozano, I., Makariev, M., Mallot, K., Maneva, G., Mankuzhiyil, N., Mannheim, K., Maraschi, L., Marcote, B., Mariotti, M., Martínez, M., Mazin, D., Menzel, U., Meucci, M., Miranda, J. M., Mirzoyan, R., Moralejo, A., Munar-Adrover, P., Nakajima, D., Niedzwiecki, A., Nilsson, K., Nishijima, K., Noda, K., Nowak, N., Orito, R., Overkemping, A., Paiano, S., Palatiello, M., Paneque, D., Paoletti, R., Paredes, J. M., Paredes-Fortuny, X., Partini, S., Persic, M., Prada, F., Prada Moroni, P. G., Prandini, E., Preziuso, S., Puljak, I., Reinthal, R., Rhode, W., Ribó, M., Rico, J., Rodriguez Garcia, J., Rügamer, S., Saggion, A., Saito, T., Saito, K., Satalecka, K., Scalzotto, V., Scapin, V., Schultz, C., Schweizer, T., Shore, S. N., Sillanpää, A., Sitarek, J., Snidaric, I., Sobczynska, D., Spanier, F., Stamatescu, V., Stamerra, A., Steinbring, T., Storz, J., Strzys, M., Sun, S., Surić, T., Takalo, L., Takami, H., Tavecchio, F., Temnikov, P., Terzić, T., Tescaro, D., Teshima, M., Thaele, J., Tibolla, O., Torres, D. F., Toyama, T., Treves, A., Uellenbeck, M., Vogler, P., Wagner, R. M., Zandanel, F., Zanin, R., Lucarelli, F., Pittori, C., Vercellone, S., Verrecchia, F., Buson, S., D’Ammando, F., Stawarz, L., Giroletti, M., Orienti, M., Mundell, C., Steele, I., Zarpudin, B., Raiteri, C. M., Villata, M., Sandrinelli, A., Lähteenmäki, A., Tammi, J., Tornikoski, M., Hovatta, T., Readhead, A. C. S., Max-Moerbeck, W., Richards, J. L., Jorstad, S., Marscher, A., Gurwell, M. A., Larionov, V. M., Blinov, D. A., Konstantinova, T. S., Kopatskaya, E. N., Larionova, L. V., Larionova, E. G., Morozova, D. A., Troitsky, I. S., Mokrushina, A. A., Pavlova, Yu. V., Chen, W. P., Lin, H. C., Panwar, N., Agudo, I., Casadio, C., Gómez, J. L., Molina, S. N., Kurtanidze, O. M., Nikolashvili, M. G., Kurtanidze, S. O., Chigladze, R. A., Acosta-Pulido, J. A., Carnerero, M. I., Manilla-Robles, A., Ovcharov, E., Bozhilov, V., Metodieva, I., Aller, M. F., Aller, H. D., Fuhrman, L., Angelakis, E., Nestoras, I., Krichbaum, T. P., Zensus, J. A., Ungerechts, H., and Sievers, A.. MAGIC gamma-ray and multi-frequency observations of flat spectrum radio quasar PKS 1510-089 in early 2012. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201423484.
Aleksić, J., Ansoldi, S., Antonelli, L. A., Antoranz, P., Babic, A., Bangale, P., Barres de Almeida, U., Barrio, J. A., Becerra González, J., Bednarek, W., Bernardini, E., Biland, A., Blanch, O., Bonnefoy, S., Bonnoli, G., Borracci, F., Bretz, T., Carmona, E., Carosi, A., Carreto Fidalgo, D., Colin, P., Colombo, E., Contreras, J. L., Cortina, J., Covino, S., Da Vela, P., Dazzi, F., De Angelis, A., De Caneva, G., De Lotto, B., Delgado Mendez, C., Doert, M., Domínguez, A., Dominis Prester, D., Dorner, D., Doro, M., Einecke, S., Eisenacher, D., Elsaesser, D., Farina, E., Ferenc, D., Fonseca, M. V., Font, L., Frantzen, K., Fruck, C., García López, R. J., Garczarczyk, M., Garrido Terrats, D., Gaug, M., Godinović, N., González Muñoz, A., Gozzini, S. R., Hadasch, D., Hayashida, M., Herrera, J., Herrero, A., Hildebrand, D., Hose, J., Hrupec, D., Idec, W., Kadenius, V., Kellermann, H., Kodani, K., Konno, Y., Krause, J., Kubo, H., Kushida, J., La Barbera, A., Lelas, D., Lewandowska, N., Lindfors, E., Lombardi, S., López, M., López-Coto, R., López-Oramas, A., Lorenz, E., Lozano, I., Makariev, M., Mallot, K., Maneva, G., Mankuzhiyil, N., Mannheim, K., Maraschi, L., Marcote, B., Mariotti, M., Martínez, M., Mazin, D., Menzel, U., Meucci, M., Miranda, J. M., Mirzoyan, R., Moralejo, A., Munar-Adrover, P., Nakajima, D., Niedzwiecki, A., Nilsson, K., Nishijima, K., Noda, K., Nowak, N., Orito, R., Overkemping, A., Paiano, S., Palatiello, M., Paneque, D., Paoletti, R., Paredes, J. M., Paredes-Fortuny, X., Partini, S., Persic, M., Prada, F., Prada Moroni, P. G., Prandini, E., Preziuso, S., Puljak, I., Reinthal, R., Rhode, W., Ribó, M., Rico, J., Rodriguez Garcia, J., Rügamer, S., Saggion, A., Saito, T., Saito, K., Satalecka, K., Scalzotto, V., Scapin, V., Schultz, C., Schweizer, T., Shore, S. N., Sillanpää, A., Sitarek, J., Snidaric, I., Sobczynska, D., Spanier, F., Stamatescu, V., Stamerra, A., Steinbring, T., Storz, J., Strzys, M., Sun, S., Surić, T., Takalo, L., Takami, H., Tavecchio, F., Temnikov, P., Terzić, T., Tescaro, D., Teshima, M., Thaele, J., Tibolla, O., Torres, D. F., Toyama, T., Treves, A., Uellenbeck, M., Vogler, P., Wagner, R. M., Zandanel, F., Zanin, R., Lucarelli, F., Pittori, C., Vercellone, S., Verrecchia, F., Buson, S., D’Ammando, F., Stawarz, L., Giroletti, M., Orienti, M., Mundell, C., Steele, I., Zarpudin, B., Raiteri, C. M., Villata, M., Sandrinelli, A., Lähteenmäki, A., Tammi, J., Tornikoski, M., Hovatta, T., Readhead, A. C. S., Max-Moerbeck, W., Richards, J. L., Jorstad, S., Marscher, A., Gurwell, M. A., Larionov, V. M., Blinov, D. A., Konstantinova, T. S., Kopatskaya, E. N., Larionova, L. V., Larionova, E. G., Morozova, D. A., Troitsky, I. S., Mokrushina, A. A., Pavlova, Yu. V., Chen, W. P., Lin, H. C., Panwar, N., Agudo, I., Casadio, C., Gómez, J. L., Molina, S. N., Kurtanidze, O. M., Nikolashvili, M. G., Kurtanidze, S. O., Chigladze, R. A., Acosta-Pulido, J. A., Carnerero, M. I., Manilla-Robles, A., Ovcharov, E., Bozhilov, V., Metodieva, I., Aller, M. F., Aller, H. D., Fuhrman, L., Angelakis, E., Nestoras, I., Krichbaum, T. P., Zensus, J. A., Ungerechts, H., & Sievers, A.. MAGIC gamma-ray and multi-frequency observations of flat spectrum radio quasar PKS 1510-089 in early 2012. United States. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201423484.
Aleksić, J., Ansoldi, S., Antonelli, L. A., Antoranz, P., Babic, A., Bangale, P., Barres de Almeida, U., Barrio, J. A., Becerra González, J., Bednarek, W., Bernardini, E., Biland, A., Blanch, O., Bonnefoy, S., Bonnoli, G., Borracci, F., Bretz, T., Carmona, E., Carosi, A., Carreto Fidalgo, D., Colin, P., Colombo, E., Contreras, J. L., Cortina, J., Covino, S., Da Vela, P., Dazzi, F., De Angelis, A., De Caneva, G., De Lotto, B., Delgado Mendez, C., Doert, M., Domínguez, A., Dominis Prester, D., Dorner, D., Doro, M., Einecke, S., Eisenacher, D., Elsaesser, D., Farina, E., Ferenc, D., Fonseca, M. V., Font, L., Frantzen, K., Fruck, C., García López, R. J., Garczarczyk, M., Garrido Terrats, D., Gaug, M., Godinović, N., González Muñoz, A., Gozzini, S. R., Hadasch, D., Hayashida, M., Herrera, J., Herrero, A., Hildebrand, D., Hose, J., Hrupec, D., Idec, W., Kadenius, V., Kellermann, H., Kodani, K., Konno, Y., Krause, J., Kubo, H., Kushida, J., La Barbera, A., Lelas, D., Lewandowska, N., Lindfors, E., Lombardi, S., López, M., López-Coto, R., López-Oramas, A., Lorenz, E., Lozano, I., Makariev, M., Mallot, K., Maneva, G., Mankuzhiyil, N., Mannheim, K., Maraschi, L., Marcote, B., Mariotti, M., Martínez, M., Mazin, D., Menzel, U., Meucci, M., Miranda, J. M., Mirzoyan, R., Moralejo, A., Munar-Adrover, P., Nakajima, D., Niedzwiecki, A., Nilsson, K., Nishijima, K., Noda, K., Nowak, N., Orito, R., Overkemping, A., Paiano, S., Palatiello, M., Paneque, D., Paoletti, R., Paredes, J. M., Paredes-Fortuny, X., Partini, S., Persic, M., Prada, F., Prada Moroni, P. G., Prandini, E., Preziuso, S., Puljak, I., Reinthal, R., Rhode, W., Ribó, M., Rico, J., Rodriguez Garcia, J., Rügamer, S., Saggion, A., Saito, T., Saito, K., Satalecka, K., Scalzotto, V., Scapin, V., Schultz, C., Schweizer, T., Shore, S. N., Sillanpää, A., Sitarek, J., Snidaric, I., Sobczynska, D., Spanier, F., Stamatescu, V., Stamerra, A., Steinbring, T., Storz, J., Strzys, M., Sun, S., Surić, T., Takalo, L., Takami, H., Tavecchio, F., Temnikov, P., Terzić, T., Tescaro, D., Teshima, M., Thaele, J., Tibolla, O., Torres, D. F., Toyama, T., Treves, A., Uellenbeck, M., Vogler, P., Wagner, R. M., Zandanel, F., Zanin, R., Lucarelli, F., Pittori, C., Vercellone, S., Verrecchia, F., Buson, S., D’Ammando, F., Stawarz, L., Giroletti, M., Orienti, M., Mundell, C., Steele, I., Zarpudin, B., Raiteri, C. M., Villata, M., Sandrinelli, A., Lähteenmäki, A., Tammi, J., Tornikoski, M., Hovatta, T., Readhead, A. C. S., Max-Moerbeck, W., Richards, J. L., Jorstad, S., Marscher, A., Gurwell, M. A., Larionov, V. M., Blinov, D. A., Konstantinova, T. S., Kopatskaya, E. N., Larionova, L. V., Larionova, E. G., Morozova, D. A., Troitsky, I. S., Mokrushina, A. A., Pavlova, Yu. V., Chen, W. P., Lin, H. C., Panwar, N., Agudo, I., Casadio, C., Gómez, J. L., Molina, S. N., Kurtanidze, O. M., Nikolashvili, M. G., Kurtanidze, S. O., Chigladze, R. A., Acosta-Pulido, J. A., Carnerero, M. I., Manilla-Robles, A., Ovcharov, E., Bozhilov, V., Metodieva, I., Aller, M. F., Aller, H. D., Fuhrman, L., Angelakis, E., Nestoras, I., Krichbaum, T. P., Zensus, J. A., Ungerechts, H., and Sievers, A.. 2014. "MAGIC gamma-ray and multi-frequency observations of flat spectrum radio quasar PKS 1510-089 in early 2012". United States. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201423484. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1356441.
@article{osti_1356441,
title = {MAGIC gamma-ray and multi-frequency observations of flat spectrum radio quasar PKS 1510-089 in early 2012},
author = {Aleksić, J. and Ansoldi, S. and Antonelli, L. A. and Antoranz, P. and Babic, A. and Bangale, P. and Barres de Almeida, U. and Barrio, J. A. and Becerra González, J. and Bednarek, W. and Bernardini, E. and Biland, A. and Blanch, O. and Bonnefoy, S. and Bonnoli, G. and Borracci, F. and Bretz, T. and Carmona, E. and Carosi, A. and Carreto Fidalgo, D. and Colin, P. and Colombo, E. and Contreras, J. L. and Cortina, J. and Covino, S. and Da Vela, P. and Dazzi, F. and De Angelis, A. and De Caneva, G. and De Lotto, B. and Delgado Mendez, C. and Doert, M. and Domínguez, A. and Dominis Prester, D. and Dorner, D. and Doro, M. and Einecke, S. and Eisenacher, D. and Elsaesser, D. and Farina, E. and Ferenc, D. and Fonseca, M. V. and Font, L. and Frantzen, K. and Fruck, C. and García López, R. J. and Garczarczyk, M. and Garrido Terrats, D. and Gaug, M. and Godinović, N. and González Muñoz, A. and Gozzini, S. R. and Hadasch, D. and Hayashida, M. and Herrera, J. and Herrero, A. and Hildebrand, D. and Hose, J. and Hrupec, D. and Idec, W. and Kadenius, V. and Kellermann, H. and Kodani, K. and Konno, Y. and Krause, J. and Kubo, H. and Kushida, J. and La Barbera, A. and Lelas, D. and Lewandowska, N. and Lindfors, E. and Lombardi, S. and López, M. and López-Coto, R. and López-Oramas, A. and Lorenz, E. and Lozano, I. and Makariev, M. and Mallot, K. and Maneva, G. and Mankuzhiyil, N. and Mannheim, K. and Maraschi, L. and Marcote, B. and Mariotti, M. and Martínez, M. and Mazin, D. and Menzel, U. and Meucci, M. and Miranda, J. M. and Mirzoyan, R. and Moralejo, A. and Munar-Adrover, P. and Nakajima, D. and Niedzwiecki, A. and Nilsson, K. and Nishijima, K. and Noda, K. and Nowak, N. and Orito, R. and Overkemping, A. and Paiano, S. and Palatiello, M. and Paneque, D. and Paoletti, R. and Paredes, J. M. and Paredes-Fortuny, X. and Partini, S. and Persic, M. and Prada, F. and Prada Moroni, P. G. and Prandini, E. and Preziuso, S. and Puljak, I. and Reinthal, R. and Rhode, W. and Ribó, M. and Rico, J. and Rodriguez Garcia, J. and Rügamer, S. and Saggion, A. and Saito, T. and Saito, K. and Satalecka, K. and Scalzotto, V. and Scapin, V. and Schultz, C. and Schweizer, T. and Shore, S. N. and Sillanpää, A. and Sitarek, J. and Snidaric, I. and Sobczynska, D. and Spanier, F. and Stamatescu, V. and Stamerra, A. and Steinbring, T. and Storz, J. and Strzys, M. and Sun, S. and Surić, T. and Takalo, L. and Takami, H. and Tavecchio, F. and Temnikov, P. and Terzić, T. and Tescaro, D. and Teshima, M. and Thaele, J. and Tibolla, O. and Torres, D. F. and Toyama, T. and Treves, A. and Uellenbeck, M. and Vogler, P. and Wagner, R. M. and Zandanel, F. and Zanin, R. and Lucarelli, F. and Pittori, C. and Vercellone, S. and Verrecchia, F. and Buson, S. and D’Ammando, F. and Stawarz, L. and Giroletti, M. and Orienti, M. and Mundell, C. and Steele, I. and Zarpudin, B. and Raiteri, C. M. and Villata, M. and Sandrinelli, A. and Lähteenmäki, A. and Tammi, J. and Tornikoski, M. and Hovatta, T. and Readhead, A. C. S. and Max-Moerbeck, W. and Richards, J. L. and Jorstad, S. and Marscher, A. and Gurwell, M. A. and Larionov, V. M. and Blinov, D. A. and Konstantinova, T. S. and Kopatskaya, E. N. and Larionova, L. V. and Larionova, E. G. and Morozova, D. A. and Troitsky, I. S. and Mokrushina, A. A. and Pavlova, Yu. V. and Chen, W. P. and Lin, H. C. and Panwar, N. and Agudo, I. and Casadio, C. and Gómez, J. L. and Molina, S. N. and Kurtanidze, O. M. and Nikolashvili, M. G. and Kurtanidze, S. O. and Chigladze, R. A. and Acosta-Pulido, J. A. and Carnerero, M. I. and Manilla-Robles, A. and Ovcharov, E. and Bozhilov, V. and Metodieva, I. and Aller, M. F. and Aller, H. D. and Fuhrman, L. and Angelakis, E. and Nestoras, I. and Krichbaum, T. P. and Zensus, J. A. and Ungerechts, H. and Sievers, A.},
abstractNote = {Aims. We report amongst more than fifty blazars detected in very high energy (VHE, E> 100 GeV) γ rays, only three belong to the subclass of flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs). The detection of FSRQs in the VHE range is challenging, mainly because of their soft spectra in the GeV-TeV regime. MAGIC observed PKS 1510-089 (z = 0.36) starting 2012 February 3 until April 3 during a high activity state in the high energy (HE, E> 100 MeV) γ-ray band observed by AGILE and Fermi. MAGIC observations result in the detection of a source with significance of 6.0 standard deviations (σ). We study the multi-frequency behaviour of the source at the epoch of MAGIC observation, collecting quasi-simultaneous data at radio and optical (GASP-WEBT and F-Gamma collaborations, REM, Steward, Perkins, Liverpool, OVRO, and VLBA telescopes), X-ray (Swift satellite), and HE γ-ray frequencies. Methods. We study the VHE γ-ray emission, together with the multi-frequency light curves, 43 GHz radio maps, and spectral energy distribution (SED) of the source. The quasi-simultaneous multi-frequency SED from the millimetre radio band to VHE γ rays is modelled with a one-zone inverse Compton model. We study two different origins of the seed photons for the inverse Compton scattering, namely the infrared torus and a slow sheath surrounding the jet around the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) core. Results. We find that the VHE γ-ray emission detected from PKS 1510-089 in 2012 February-April agrees with the previous VHE observations of the source from 2009 March-April. We find no statistically significant variability during the MAGIC observations on daily, weekly, or monthly time scales, while the other two known VHE FSRQs (3C 279 and PKS 1222+216) have shown daily scale to sub-hour variability. The γ-ray SED combining AGILE, Fermi and MAGIC data joins smoothly and shows no hint of a break. The multi-frequency light curves suggest a common origin for the millimetre radio and HE γ-ray emission, and the HE γ-ray flaring starts when the new component is ejected from the 43 GHz VLBA core and the studied SED models fit the data well. However, the fast HE γ-ray variability requires that within the modelled large emitting region, more compact regions must exist. Lastly, we suggest that these observed signatures would be most naturally explained by a turbulent plasma flowing at a relativistic speed down the jet and crossing a standing conical shock.},
doi = {10.1051/0004-6361/201423484},
journal = {Astronomy and Astrophysics},
number = ,
volume = 569,
place = {United States},
year = {2014},
month = {9}
}