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Title: Searching the Gamma-Ray Sky for Counterparts to Gravitational Wave Sources: FERMI Gamma Ray Burst MONITO R and Large Area Telescope Observations of LVT151012 and GW151226

Here, we present the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations of the LIGO binary black hole merger event GW151226 and candidate LVT151012. At the time of the LIGO triggers on LVT151012 and GW151226, GBM was observing 68% and 83% of the localization regions, and LAT was observing 47% and 32%, respectively. No candidate electromagnetic counterparts were detected by either the GBM or LAT. We present a detailed analysis of the GBM and LAT data over a range of timescales from seconds to years, using automated pipelines and new techniques for characterizing the flux upper bounds across large areas of the sky. Finally, due to the partial GBM and LAT coverage of the large LIGO localization regions at the trigger times for both events, differences in source distances and masses, as well as the uncertain degree to which emission from these sources could be beamed, these non-detections cannot be used to constrain the variety of theoretical models recently applied to explain the candidate GBM counterpart to GW150914.
Authors:
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Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-76SF00515
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 835; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Research Org:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Contributing Orgs:
Fermi LAT Collaboration
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; gamma rays; general; gravitational waves; methods; observational
OSTI Identifier:
1355742

Racusin, J. L., Burns, E., Goldstein, A., Connaughton, V., Wilson-Hodge, C. A., Jenke, P., Blackburn, L., Briggs, M. S., Broida, J., Camp, J., Christensen, N., Hui, C. M., Littenberg, T., Shawhan, P., Singer, L., Veitch, J., Bhat, P. N., Cleveland, W., Fitzpatrick, G., Gibby, M. H., Kienlin, A. von, McBreen, S., Mailyan, B., Meegan, C. A., Paciesas, W. S., Preece, R. D., Roberts, O. J., Stanbro, M., Veres, P., Zhang, B. -B., Ackermann, M., Albert, A., Atwood, W. B., Axelsson, M., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Baring, M. G., Bastieri, D., Bellazzini, R., Bissaldi, E., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonino, R., Bregeon, J., Bruel, P., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caputo, R., Caragiulo, M., Caraveo, P. A., Cavazzuti, E., Charles, E., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Costanza, F., Cuoco, A., Cutini, S., D’Ammando, F., Palma, F. de, Desiante, R., Digel, S. W., Lalla, N. Di, Mauro, M. Di, Venere, L. Di, Drell, P. S., Favuzzi, C., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Giglietto, N., Gill, R., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Granot, J., Green, D., Grove, J. E., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Harding, A. K., Jogler, T., Jóhannesson, G., Kamae, T., Kensei, S., Kocevski, D., Kuss, M., Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Li, J., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lubrano, P., Magill, J. D., Maldera, S., Malyshev, D., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Michelson, P. F., Mizuno, T., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Negro, M., Nuss, E., Omodei, N., Orienti, M., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Paneque, D., Perkins, J. S., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Principe, G., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Parkinson, P. M. Saz, Scargle, J. D., Sgrò, C., Simone, D., Siskind, E. J., Smith, D. A., Spada, F., Spinelli, P., Suson, D. J., Tajima, H., Thayer, J. B., Torres, D. F., Troja, E., Uchiyama, Y., Vianello, G., Wood, K. S., and Wood, M.. Searching the Gamma-Ray Sky for Counterparts to Gravitational Wave Sources: FERMI Gamma Ray Burst MONITOR and Large Area Telescope Observations of LVT151012 and GW151226. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/835/1/82.
Racusin, J. L., Burns, E., Goldstein, A., Connaughton, V., Wilson-Hodge, C. A., Jenke, P., Blackburn, L., Briggs, M. S., Broida, J., Camp, J., Christensen, N., Hui, C. M., Littenberg, T., Shawhan, P., Singer, L., Veitch, J., Bhat, P. N., Cleveland, W., Fitzpatrick, G., Gibby, M. H., Kienlin, A. von, McBreen, S., Mailyan, B., Meegan, C. A., Paciesas, W. S., Preece, R. D., Roberts, O. J., Stanbro, M., Veres, P., Zhang, B. -B., Ackermann, M., Albert, A., Atwood, W. B., Axelsson, M., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Baring, M. G., Bastieri, D., Bellazzini, R., Bissaldi, E., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonino, R., Bregeon, J., Bruel, P., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caputo, R., Caragiulo, M., Caraveo, P. A., Cavazzuti, E., Charles, E., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Costanza, F., Cuoco, A., Cutini, S., D’Ammando, F., Palma, F. de, Desiante, R., Digel, S. W., Lalla, N. Di, Mauro, M. Di, Venere, L. Di, Drell, P. S., Favuzzi, C., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Giglietto, N., Gill, R., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Granot, J., Green, D., Grove, J. E., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Harding, A. K., Jogler, T., Jóhannesson, G., Kamae, T., Kensei, S., Kocevski, D., Kuss, M., Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Li, J., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lubrano, P., Magill, J. D., Maldera, S., Malyshev, D., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Michelson, P. F., Mizuno, T., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Negro, M., Nuss, E., Omodei, N., Orienti, M., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Paneque, D., Perkins, J. S., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Principe, G., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Parkinson, P. M. Saz, Scargle, J. D., Sgrò, C., Simone, D., Siskind, E. J., Smith, D. A., Spada, F., Spinelli, P., Suson, D. J., Tajima, H., Thayer, J. B., Torres, D. F., Troja, E., Uchiyama, Y., Vianello, G., Wood, K. S., & Wood, M.. Searching the Gamma-Ray Sky for Counterparts to Gravitational Wave Sources: FERMI Gamma Ray Burst MONITOR and Large Area Telescope Observations of LVT151012 and GW151226. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/835/1/82.
Racusin, J. L., Burns, E., Goldstein, A., Connaughton, V., Wilson-Hodge, C. A., Jenke, P., Blackburn, L., Briggs, M. S., Broida, J., Camp, J., Christensen, N., Hui, C. M., Littenberg, T., Shawhan, P., Singer, L., Veitch, J., Bhat, P. N., Cleveland, W., Fitzpatrick, G., Gibby, M. H., Kienlin, A. von, McBreen, S., Mailyan, B., Meegan, C. A., Paciesas, W. S., Preece, R. D., Roberts, O. J., Stanbro, M., Veres, P., Zhang, B. -B., Ackermann, M., Albert, A., Atwood, W. B., Axelsson, M., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Baring, M. G., Bastieri, D., Bellazzini, R., Bissaldi, E., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonino, R., Bregeon, J., Bruel, P., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caputo, R., Caragiulo, M., Caraveo, P. A., Cavazzuti, E., Charles, E., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Costanza, F., Cuoco, A., Cutini, S., D’Ammando, F., Palma, F. de, Desiante, R., Digel, S. W., Lalla, N. Di, Mauro, M. Di, Venere, L. Di, Drell, P. S., Favuzzi, C., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Giglietto, N., Gill, R., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Granot, J., Green, D., Grove, J. E., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Harding, A. K., Jogler, T., Jóhannesson, G., Kamae, T., Kensei, S., Kocevski, D., Kuss, M., Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Li, J., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lubrano, P., Magill, J. D., Maldera, S., Malyshev, D., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Michelson, P. F., Mizuno, T., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Negro, M., Nuss, E., Omodei, N., Orienti, M., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Paneque, D., Perkins, J. S., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Principe, G., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Parkinson, P. M. Saz, Scargle, J. D., Sgrò, C., Simone, D., Siskind, E. J., Smith, D. A., Spada, F., Spinelli, P., Suson, D. J., Tajima, H., Thayer, J. B., Torres, D. F., Troja, E., Uchiyama, Y., Vianello, G., Wood, K. S., and Wood, M.. 2017. "Searching the Gamma-Ray Sky for Counterparts to Gravitational Wave Sources: FERMI Gamma Ray Burst MONITOR and Large Area Telescope Observations of LVT151012 and GW151226". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/835/1/82. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1355742.
@article{osti_1355742,
title = {Searching the Gamma-Ray Sky for Counterparts to Gravitational Wave Sources: FERMI Gamma Ray Burst MONITOR and Large Area Telescope Observations of LVT151012 and GW151226},
author = {Racusin, J. L. and Burns, E. and Goldstein, A. and Connaughton, V. and Wilson-Hodge, C. A. and Jenke, P. and Blackburn, L. and Briggs, M. S. and Broida, J. and Camp, J. and Christensen, N. and Hui, C. M. and Littenberg, T. and Shawhan, P. and Singer, L. and Veitch, J. and Bhat, P. N. and Cleveland, W. and Fitzpatrick, G. and Gibby, M. H. and Kienlin, A. von and McBreen, S. and Mailyan, B. and Meegan, C. A. and Paciesas, W. S. and Preece, R. D. and Roberts, O. J. and Stanbro, M. and Veres, P. and Zhang, B. -B. and Ackermann, M. and Albert, A. and Atwood, W. B. and Axelsson, M. and Baldini, L. and Ballet, J. and Barbiellini, G. and Baring, M. G. and Bastieri, D. and Bellazzini, R. and Bissaldi, E. and Blandford, R. D. and Bloom, E. D. and Bonino, R. and Bregeon, J. and Bruel, P. and Buson, S. and Caliandro, G. A. and Cameron, R. A. and Caputo, R. and Caragiulo, M. and Caraveo, P. A. and Cavazzuti, E. and Charles, E. and Chiang, J. and Ciprini, S. and Costanza, F. and Cuoco, A. and Cutini, S. and D’Ammando, F. and Palma, F. de and Desiante, R. and Digel, S. W. and Lalla, N. Di and Mauro, M. Di and Venere, L. Di and Drell, P. S. and Favuzzi, C. and Ferrara, E. C. and Focke, W. B. and Fukazawa, Y. and Funk, S. and Fusco, P. and Gargano, F. and Gasparrini, D. and Giglietto, N. and Gill, R. and Giroletti, M. and Glanzman, T. and Granot, J. and Green, D. and Grove, J. E. and Guillemot, L. and Guiriec, S. and Harding, A. K. and Jogler, T. and Jóhannesson, G. and Kamae, T. and Kensei, S. and Kocevski, D. and Kuss, M. and Larsson, S. and Latronico, L. and Li, J. and Longo, F. and Loparco, F. and Lubrano, P. and Magill, J. D. and Maldera, S. and Malyshev, D. and Mazziotta, M. N. and McEnery, J. E. and Michelson, P. F. and Mizuno, T. and Monzani, M. E. and Morselli, A. and Moskalenko, I. V. and Negro, M. and Nuss, E. and Omodei, N. and Orienti, M. and Orlando, E. and Ormes, J. F. and Paneque, D. and Perkins, J. S. and Pesce-Rollins, M. and Piron, F. and Pivato, G. and Porter, T. A. and Principe, G. and Rainò, S. and Rando, R. and Razzano, M. and Razzaque, S. and Reimer, A. and Reimer, O. and Parkinson, P. M. Saz and Scargle, J. D. and Sgrò, C. and Simone, D. and Siskind, E. J. and Smith, D. A. and Spada, F. and Spinelli, P. and Suson, D. J. and Tajima, H. and Thayer, J. B. and Torres, D. F. and Troja, E. and Uchiyama, Y. and Vianello, G. and Wood, K. S. and Wood, M.},
abstractNote = {Here, we present the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations of the LIGO binary black hole merger event GW151226 and candidate LVT151012. At the time of the LIGO triggers on LVT151012 and GW151226, GBM was observing 68% and 83% of the localization regions, and LAT was observing 47% and 32%, respectively. No candidate electromagnetic counterparts were detected by either the GBM or LAT. We present a detailed analysis of the GBM and LAT data over a range of timescales from seconds to years, using automated pipelines and new techniques for characterizing the flux upper bounds across large areas of the sky. Finally, due to the partial GBM and LAT coverage of the large LIGO localization regions at the trigger times for both events, differences in source distances and masses, as well as the uncertain degree to which emission from these sources could be beamed, these non-detections cannot be used to constrain the variety of theoretical models recently applied to explain the candidate GBM counterpart to GW150914.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/835/1/82},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
number = 1,
volume = 835,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {1}
}