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Title: Very high energy outburst of Markarian 501 in May 2009

We observed the very high energy (VHE; E> 100 GeV) blazar Markarian 501 between April 17 and May 5 (MJD 54 938–54 956), 2009, as part of an extensive multi-wavelength campaign from radio to VHE. Strong VHE γ-ray activity was detected on May 1st with Whipple and VERITAS, when the flux (E> 400 GeV) increased to 10 times the pre-flare baseline flux (3.9 × 10 -11 ph cm -2 s -1), reaching five times the flux of the Crab Nebula. Furthermore, this coincided with a decrease in the optical polarization and a rotation of the polarization angle by 15°. This VHE flare showed a fast flux variation with an increase of a factor ~4 in 25 min, and a falling time of ~50 min. We also present the observations of the quiescent state previous to the flare and of the high state after the flare, focusing on the flux and spectral variability from Whipple, VERITAS, Fermi-LAT, RXTE, and Swift combined with optical and radio data.
Authors:
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Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-76SF00515
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astronomy and Astrophysics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 594; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-6361
Publisher:
EDP Sciences
Research Org:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Contributing Orgs:
The VERITAS Collaboration
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; BL Lacertae objects: individual: Mrk 501; gamma rays: galaxies
OSTI Identifier:
1355713

Aliu, E., Archambault, S., Archer, A., Arlen, T., Aune, T., Barnacka, A., Behera, B., Beilicke, M., Benbow, W., Berger, K., Bird, R., Böttcher, M., Bouvier, A., Buchovecky, M., Buckley, J. H., Bugaev, V., Cardenzana, J. V., Cerruti, M., Cesarini, A., Chen, X., Ciupik, L., Collins-Hughes, E., Connolly, M. P., Cui, W., Dumm, J., Eisch, J. D., Falcone, A., Federici, S., Feng, Q., Finley, J. P., Fleischhack, H., Fortin, P., Fortson, L., Furniss, A., Galante, N., Gall, D., Gillanders, G. H., Griffin, S., Griffiths, S. T., Grube, J., Gyuk, G., Hütten, M., Håkansson, N., Holder, J., Hughes, G., Humensky, T. B., Johnson, C. A., Kaaret, P., Kar, P., Kelley-Hoskins, N., Kertzman, M., Khassen, Y., Kieda, D., Krause, M., Krawczynski, H., Krennrich, F., Lang, M. J., Madhavan, A. S., Maier, G., McArthur, S., McCann, A., Meagher, K., Millis, J., Moriarty, P., Mukherjee, R., Nieto, D., O’Faoláin de Bhróithe, A., Ong, R. A., Orr, M., Otte, A. N., Pandel, D., Park, N., Pelassa, V., Perkins, J. S., Pichel, A., Pohl, M., Popkow, A., Quinn, J., Ragan, K., Reyes, L. C., Reynolds, P. T., Roache, E., Rousselle, J., Rovero, A. C., Saxon, D. B., Sembroski, G. H., Shahinyan, K., Sheidaei, F., Skole, C., Smith, A. W., Staszak, D., Telezhinsky, I., Theiling, M., Todd, N. W., Tucci, J. V., Tyler, J., Varlotta, A., Vassiliev, V. V., Vincent, S., Wakely, S. P., Weiner, O. M., Weinstein, A., Welsing, R., Wilhelm, A., Williams, D. A., Zitzer, B., Baring, M. G., Becerra Gónzalez, J., Cillis, A. N., Horan, D., and Paneque, D.. Very high energy outburst of Markarian 501 in May 2009. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201628744.
Aliu, E., Archambault, S., Archer, A., Arlen, T., Aune, T., Barnacka, A., Behera, B., Beilicke, M., Benbow, W., Berger, K., Bird, R., Böttcher, M., Bouvier, A., Buchovecky, M., Buckley, J. H., Bugaev, V., Cardenzana, J. V., Cerruti, M., Cesarini, A., Chen, X., Ciupik, L., Collins-Hughes, E., Connolly, M. P., Cui, W., Dumm, J., Eisch, J. D., Falcone, A., Federici, S., Feng, Q., Finley, J. P., Fleischhack, H., Fortin, P., Fortson, L., Furniss, A., Galante, N., Gall, D., Gillanders, G. H., Griffin, S., Griffiths, S. T., Grube, J., Gyuk, G., Hütten, M., Håkansson, N., Holder, J., Hughes, G., Humensky, T. B., Johnson, C. A., Kaaret, P., Kar, P., Kelley-Hoskins, N., Kertzman, M., Khassen, Y., Kieda, D., Krause, M., Krawczynski, H., Krennrich, F., Lang, M. J., Madhavan, A. S., Maier, G., McArthur, S., McCann, A., Meagher, K., Millis, J., Moriarty, P., Mukherjee, R., Nieto, D., O’Faoláin de Bhróithe, A., Ong, R. A., Orr, M., Otte, A. N., Pandel, D., Park, N., Pelassa, V., Perkins, J. S., Pichel, A., Pohl, M., Popkow, A., Quinn, J., Ragan, K., Reyes, L. C., Reynolds, P. T., Roache, E., Rousselle, J., Rovero, A. C., Saxon, D. B., Sembroski, G. H., Shahinyan, K., Sheidaei, F., Skole, C., Smith, A. W., Staszak, D., Telezhinsky, I., Theiling, M., Todd, N. W., Tucci, J. V., Tyler, J., Varlotta, A., Vassiliev, V. V., Vincent, S., Wakely, S. P., Weiner, O. M., Weinstein, A., Welsing, R., Wilhelm, A., Williams, D. A., Zitzer, B., Baring, M. G., Becerra Gónzalez, J., Cillis, A. N., Horan, D., & Paneque, D.. Very high energy outburst of Markarian 501 in May 2009. United States. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201628744.
Aliu, E., Archambault, S., Archer, A., Arlen, T., Aune, T., Barnacka, A., Behera, B., Beilicke, M., Benbow, W., Berger, K., Bird, R., Böttcher, M., Bouvier, A., Buchovecky, M., Buckley, J. H., Bugaev, V., Cardenzana, J. V., Cerruti, M., Cesarini, A., Chen, X., Ciupik, L., Collins-Hughes, E., Connolly, M. P., Cui, W., Dumm, J., Eisch, J. D., Falcone, A., Federici, S., Feng, Q., Finley, J. P., Fleischhack, H., Fortin, P., Fortson, L., Furniss, A., Galante, N., Gall, D., Gillanders, G. H., Griffin, S., Griffiths, S. T., Grube, J., Gyuk, G., Hütten, M., Håkansson, N., Holder, J., Hughes, G., Humensky, T. B., Johnson, C. A., Kaaret, P., Kar, P., Kelley-Hoskins, N., Kertzman, M., Khassen, Y., Kieda, D., Krause, M., Krawczynski, H., Krennrich, F., Lang, M. J., Madhavan, A. S., Maier, G., McArthur, S., McCann, A., Meagher, K., Millis, J., Moriarty, P., Mukherjee, R., Nieto, D., O’Faoláin de Bhróithe, A., Ong, R. A., Orr, M., Otte, A. N., Pandel, D., Park, N., Pelassa, V., Perkins, J. S., Pichel, A., Pohl, M., Popkow, A., Quinn, J., Ragan, K., Reyes, L. C., Reynolds, P. T., Roache, E., Rousselle, J., Rovero, A. C., Saxon, D. B., Sembroski, G. H., Shahinyan, K., Sheidaei, F., Skole, C., Smith, A. W., Staszak, D., Telezhinsky, I., Theiling, M., Todd, N. W., Tucci, J. V., Tyler, J., Varlotta, A., Vassiliev, V. V., Vincent, S., Wakely, S. P., Weiner, O. M., Weinstein, A., Welsing, R., Wilhelm, A., Williams, D. A., Zitzer, B., Baring, M. G., Becerra Gónzalez, J., Cillis, A. N., Horan, D., and Paneque, D.. 2016. "Very high energy outburst of Markarian 501 in May 2009". United States. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201628744. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1355713.
@article{osti_1355713,
title = {Very high energy outburst of Markarian 501 in May 2009},
author = {Aliu, E. and Archambault, S. and Archer, A. and Arlen, T. and Aune, T. and Barnacka, A. and Behera, B. and Beilicke, M. and Benbow, W. and Berger, K. and Bird, R. and Böttcher, M. and Bouvier, A. and Buchovecky, M. and Buckley, J. H. and Bugaev, V. and Cardenzana, J. V. and Cerruti, M. and Cesarini, A. and Chen, X. and Ciupik, L. and Collins-Hughes, E. and Connolly, M. P. and Cui, W. and Dumm, J. and Eisch, J. D. and Falcone, A. and Federici, S. and Feng, Q. and Finley, J. P. and Fleischhack, H. and Fortin, P. and Fortson, L. and Furniss, A. and Galante, N. and Gall, D. and Gillanders, G. H. and Griffin, S. and Griffiths, S. T. and Grube, J. and Gyuk, G. and Hütten, M. and Håkansson, N. and Holder, J. and Hughes, G. and Humensky, T. B. and Johnson, C. A. and Kaaret, P. and Kar, P. and Kelley-Hoskins, N. and Kertzman, M. and Khassen, Y. and Kieda, D. and Krause, M. and Krawczynski, H. and Krennrich, F. and Lang, M. J. and Madhavan, A. S. and Maier, G. and McArthur, S. and McCann, A. and Meagher, K. and Millis, J. and Moriarty, P. and Mukherjee, R. and Nieto, D. and O’Faoláin de Bhróithe, A. and Ong, R. A. and Orr, M. and Otte, A. N. and Pandel, D. and Park, N. and Pelassa, V. and Perkins, J. S. and Pichel, A. and Pohl, M. and Popkow, A. and Quinn, J. and Ragan, K. and Reyes, L. C. and Reynolds, P. T. and Roache, E. and Rousselle, J. and Rovero, A. C. and Saxon, D. B. and Sembroski, G. H. and Shahinyan, K. and Sheidaei, F. and Skole, C. and Smith, A. W. and Staszak, D. and Telezhinsky, I. and Theiling, M. and Todd, N. W. and Tucci, J. V. and Tyler, J. and Varlotta, A. and Vassiliev, V. V. and Vincent, S. and Wakely, S. P. and Weiner, O. M. and Weinstein, A. and Welsing, R. and Wilhelm, A. and Williams, D. A. and Zitzer, B. and Baring, M. G. and Becerra Gónzalez, J. and Cillis, A. N. and Horan, D. and Paneque, D.},
abstractNote = {We observed the very high energy (VHE; E> 100 GeV) blazar Markarian 501 between April 17 and May 5 (MJD 54 938–54 956), 2009, as part of an extensive multi-wavelength campaign from radio to VHE. Strong VHE γ-ray activity was detected on May 1st with Whipple and VERITAS, when the flux (E> 400 GeV) increased to 10 times the pre-flare baseline flux (3.9 × 10-11 ph cm-2 s-1), reaching five times the flux of the Crab Nebula. Furthermore, this coincided with a decrease in the optical polarization and a rotation of the polarization angle by 15°. This VHE flare showed a fast flux variation with an increase of a factor ~4 in 25 min, and a falling time of ~50 min. We also present the observations of the quiescent state previous to the flare and of the high state after the flare, focusing on the flux and spectral variability from Whipple, VERITAS, Fermi-LAT, RXTE, and Swift combined with optical and radio data.},
doi = {10.1051/0004-6361/201628744},
journal = {Astronomy and Astrophysics},
number = ,
volume = 594,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {10}
}