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Title: Insights into the emission of the blazar 1ES 1011+496 through unprecedented broadband observations during 2011 and 2012

Abstract

1ES 1011+496 (z = 0.212) was discovered in very high-energy (VHE, E> 100 GeV) γ rays with MAGIC in 2007. The absence of simultaneous data at lower energies led to an incomplete characterization of the broadband spectral energy distribution (SED). In this paper, we study the source properties and the emission mechanisms, probing whether a simple one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) scenario is able to explain the observed broadband spectrum. We analyzed data in the range from VHE to radio data from 2011 and 2012 collected by MAGIC, Fermi-LAT, Swift, KVA, OVRO, and Metsähovi in addition to optical polarimetry data and radio maps from the Liverpool Telescope and MOJAVE. The VHE spectrum was fit with a simple power law with a photon index of 3.69 ± 0.22 and a flux above 150 GeV of (1.46 ± 0.16) x 10-11 ph cm-2s-1. The source 1ES 1011+496 was found to be in a generally quiescent state at all observed wavelengths, showing only moderate variability from radio to X-rays. A low degree of polarization of less than 10% was measured in optical, while some bright features polarized up to 60% were observed in the radio jet. A similar trend in the rotation of themore » electric vector position angle was found in optical and radio. The radio maps indicated a superluminal motion of 1.8 ± 0.4 c, which is the highest speed statistically significant measured so far in a high-frequency-peaked BL Lac. For the first time, the high-energy bump in the broadband SED of 1ES 1011+496 could be fully characterized from 0.1 GeV to 1 TeV, which permitted a more reliable interpretation within the one-zone SSC scenario. Finally, the polarimetry data suggest that at least part of the optical emission has its origin in some of the bright radio features, while the low polarization in optical might be due to the contribution of parts of the radio jet with different orientations of the magnetic field with respect to the optical emission.« less

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA); German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF); Max Planck Society (MPG) (Germany); National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN) (Italy); National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF) (Italy); Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF); Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness (MINECO) (Spain); Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) (Japan); Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) (Japan); Academy of Finland; Croatian Science Foundation (HrZZ) (Croatia); Univ. of Rijeka (Croatia); German Research Foundation (DFG); Ministry of Science and Higher Education (MNiSzW) (Poland)
Contributing Org.:
Fermi LAT Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1355701
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515; NNX08AW31G; NNX11A043G; AST-0808050; AST-1109911; FPA2012-39502; NNX12A087; 745/N-HESS-MAGIC/2010/0; SFB823/C4; SFB876/C3; 268740; SEV-2012-0234; CPAN CSD2007-00042; CSD2009-00064
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astronomy and Astrophysics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 591; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-6361
Publisher:
EDP Sciences
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; BL Lacertae objects: individual: 1ES 1011+496; galaxies: active; galaxies: jets; radiation mechanisms: non-thermal; gamma rays: galaxies

Citation Formats

Aleksić, J., Ansoldi, S., Antonelli, L. A., Antoranz, P., Arcaro, C., Babic, A., Bangale, P., Barres de Almeida, U., Barrio, J. A., Becerra González, J., Bednarek, W., Bernardini, E., Biasuzzi, B., Biland, A., Blanch, O., Bonnefoy, S., Bonnoli, G., Borracci, F., Bretz, T., Carmona, E., Carosi, A., Colin, P., Colombo, E., Contreras, J. L., Cortina, J., Covino, S., Da Vela, P., Dazzi, F., De Angelis, A., De Caneva, G., De Lotto, B., de Oña Wilhelmi, E., Delgado Mendez, C., Di Pierro, F., Dominis Prester, D., Dorner, D., Doro, M., Einecke, S., Eisenacher, D., Elsaesser, D., Fernández-Barral, A., Fidalgo, D., Fonseca, M. V., Font, L., Frantzen, K., Fruck, C., Galindo, D., García López, R. J., Garczarczyk, M., Garrido Terrats, D., Gaug, M., Godinović, N., González Muñoz, A., Gozzini, S. R., Hadasch, D., Hanabata, Y., Hayashida, M., Herrera, J., Hose, J., Hrupec, D., Idec, W., Kadenius, V., Kellermann, H., Knoetig, M. L., Kodani, K., Konno, Y., Krause, J., Kubo, H., Kushida, J., La Barbera, A., Lelas, D., Lewandowska, N., Lindfors, E., Lombardi, S., Longo, F., López, M., López-Coto, R., López-Oramas, A., Lorenz, E., Lozano, I., Makariev, M., Mallot, K., Maneva, G., Mannheim, K., Maraschi, L., Marcote, B., Mariotti, M., Martínez, M., Mazin, D., Menzel, U., Miranda, J. M., Mirzoyan, R., Moralejo, A., Munar-Adrover, P., Nakajima, D., Neustroev, V., Niedzwiecki, A., Nievas Rosillo, M., Nilsson, K., Nishijima, K., Noda, K., Orito, R., Overkemping, A., Paiano, S., Palatiello, M., Paneque, D., Paoletti, R., Paredes, J. M., Paredes-Fortuny, X., Persic, M., Poutanen, J., Prada Moroni, P. G., Prandini, E., Puljak, I., Reinthal, R., Rhode, W., Ribó, M., Rico, J., Rodriguez Garcia, J., Saito, T., Saito, K., Satalecka, K., Scalzotto, V., Scapin, V., Schweizer, T., Shore, S. N., Sillanpää, A., Sitarek, J., Snidaric, I., Sobczynska, D., Stamerra, A., Steinbring, T., Strzys, M., Takalo, L., Takami, H., Tavecchio, F., Temnikov, P., Terzić, T., Tescaro, D., Teshima, M., Thaele, J., Torres, D. F., Toyama, T., Treves, A., Vogler, P., Will, M., Zanin, R., Buson, S., D’Ammando, F., Lähteenmäki, A., Hovatta, T., Kovalev, Y. Y., Lister, M. L., Max-Moerbeck, W., Mundell, C., Pushkarev, A. B., Rastorgueva-Foi, E., Readhead, A. C. S., Richards, J. L., Tammi, J., Sanchez, D. A., Tornikoski, M., Savolainen, T., and Steele, I. Insights into the emission of the blazar 1ES 1011+496 through unprecedented broadband observations during 2011 and 2012. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201527176.
Aleksić, J., Ansoldi, S., Antonelli, L. A., Antoranz, P., Arcaro, C., Babic, A., Bangale, P., Barres de Almeida, U., Barrio, J. A., Becerra González, J., Bednarek, W., Bernardini, E., Biasuzzi, B., Biland, A., Blanch, O., Bonnefoy, S., Bonnoli, G., Borracci, F., Bretz, T., Carmona, E., Carosi, A., Colin, P., Colombo, E., Contreras, J. L., Cortina, J., Covino, S., Da Vela, P., Dazzi, F., De Angelis, A., De Caneva, G., De Lotto, B., de Oña Wilhelmi, E., Delgado Mendez, C., Di Pierro, F., Dominis Prester, D., Dorner, D., Doro, M., Einecke, S., Eisenacher, D., Elsaesser, D., Fernández-Barral, A., Fidalgo, D., Fonseca, M. V., Font, L., Frantzen, K., Fruck, C., Galindo, D., García López, R. J., Garczarczyk, M., Garrido Terrats, D., Gaug, M., Godinović, N., González Muñoz, A., Gozzini, S. R., Hadasch, D., Hanabata, Y., Hayashida, M., Herrera, J., Hose, J., Hrupec, D., Idec, W., Kadenius, V., Kellermann, H., Knoetig, M. L., Kodani, K., Konno, Y., Krause, J., Kubo, H., Kushida, J., La Barbera, A., Lelas, D., Lewandowska, N., Lindfors, E., Lombardi, S., Longo, F., López, M., López-Coto, R., López-Oramas, A., Lorenz, E., Lozano, I., Makariev, M., Mallot, K., Maneva, G., Mannheim, K., Maraschi, L., Marcote, B., Mariotti, M., Martínez, M., Mazin, D., Menzel, U., Miranda, J. M., Mirzoyan, R., Moralejo, A., Munar-Adrover, P., Nakajima, D., Neustroev, V., Niedzwiecki, A., Nievas Rosillo, M., Nilsson, K., Nishijima, K., Noda, K., Orito, R., Overkemping, A., Paiano, S., Palatiello, M., Paneque, D., Paoletti, R., Paredes, J. M., Paredes-Fortuny, X., Persic, M., Poutanen, J., Prada Moroni, P. G., Prandini, E., Puljak, I., Reinthal, R., Rhode, W., Ribó, M., Rico, J., Rodriguez Garcia, J., Saito, T., Saito, K., Satalecka, K., Scalzotto, V., Scapin, V., Schweizer, T., Shore, S. N., Sillanpää, A., Sitarek, J., Snidaric, I., Sobczynska, D., Stamerra, A., Steinbring, T., Strzys, M., Takalo, L., Takami, H., Tavecchio, F., Temnikov, P., Terzić, T., Tescaro, D., Teshima, M., Thaele, J., Torres, D. F., Toyama, T., Treves, A., Vogler, P., Will, M., Zanin, R., Buson, S., D’Ammando, F., Lähteenmäki, A., Hovatta, T., Kovalev, Y. Y., Lister, M. L., Max-Moerbeck, W., Mundell, C., Pushkarev, A. B., Rastorgueva-Foi, E., Readhead, A. C. S., Richards, J. L., Tammi, J., Sanchez, D. A., Tornikoski, M., Savolainen, T., & Steele, I. Insights into the emission of the blazar 1ES 1011+496 through unprecedented broadband observations during 2011 and 2012. United States. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201527176.
Aleksić, J., Ansoldi, S., Antonelli, L. A., Antoranz, P., Arcaro, C., Babic, A., Bangale, P., Barres de Almeida, U., Barrio, J. A., Becerra González, J., Bednarek, W., Bernardini, E., Biasuzzi, B., Biland, A., Blanch, O., Bonnefoy, S., Bonnoli, G., Borracci, F., Bretz, T., Carmona, E., Carosi, A., Colin, P., Colombo, E., Contreras, J. L., Cortina, J., Covino, S., Da Vela, P., Dazzi, F., De Angelis, A., De Caneva, G., De Lotto, B., de Oña Wilhelmi, E., Delgado Mendez, C., Di Pierro, F., Dominis Prester, D., Dorner, D., Doro, M., Einecke, S., Eisenacher, D., Elsaesser, D., Fernández-Barral, A., Fidalgo, D., Fonseca, M. V., Font, L., Frantzen, K., Fruck, C., Galindo, D., García López, R. J., Garczarczyk, M., Garrido Terrats, D., Gaug, M., Godinović, N., González Muñoz, A., Gozzini, S. R., Hadasch, D., Hanabata, Y., Hayashida, M., Herrera, J., Hose, J., Hrupec, D., Idec, W., Kadenius, V., Kellermann, H., Knoetig, M. L., Kodani, K., Konno, Y., Krause, J., Kubo, H., Kushida, J., La Barbera, A., Lelas, D., Lewandowska, N., Lindfors, E., Lombardi, S., Longo, F., López, M., López-Coto, R., López-Oramas, A., Lorenz, E., Lozano, I., Makariev, M., Mallot, K., Maneva, G., Mannheim, K., Maraschi, L., Marcote, B., Mariotti, M., Martínez, M., Mazin, D., Menzel, U., Miranda, J. M., Mirzoyan, R., Moralejo, A., Munar-Adrover, P., Nakajima, D., Neustroev, V., Niedzwiecki, A., Nievas Rosillo, M., Nilsson, K., Nishijima, K., Noda, K., Orito, R., Overkemping, A., Paiano, S., Palatiello, M., Paneque, D., Paoletti, R., Paredes, J. M., Paredes-Fortuny, X., Persic, M., Poutanen, J., Prada Moroni, P. G., Prandini, E., Puljak, I., Reinthal, R., Rhode, W., Ribó, M., Rico, J., Rodriguez Garcia, J., Saito, T., Saito, K., Satalecka, K., Scalzotto, V., Scapin, V., Schweizer, T., Shore, S. N., Sillanpää, A., Sitarek, J., Snidaric, I., Sobczynska, D., Stamerra, A., Steinbring, T., Strzys, M., Takalo, L., Takami, H., Tavecchio, F., Temnikov, P., Terzić, T., Tescaro, D., Teshima, M., Thaele, J., Torres, D. F., Toyama, T., Treves, A., Vogler, P., Will, M., Zanin, R., Buson, S., D’Ammando, F., Lähteenmäki, A., Hovatta, T., Kovalev, Y. Y., Lister, M. L., Max-Moerbeck, W., Mundell, C., Pushkarev, A. B., Rastorgueva-Foi, E., Readhead, A. C. S., Richards, J. L., Tammi, J., Sanchez, D. A., Tornikoski, M., Savolainen, T., and Steele, I. Thu . "Insights into the emission of the blazar 1ES 1011+496 through unprecedented broadband observations during 2011 and 2012". United States. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201527176. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1355701.
@article{osti_1355701,
title = {Insights into the emission of the blazar 1ES 1011+496 through unprecedented broadband observations during 2011 and 2012},
author = {Aleksić, J. and Ansoldi, S. and Antonelli, L. A. and Antoranz, P. and Arcaro, C. and Babic, A. and Bangale, P. and Barres de Almeida, U. and Barrio, J. A. and Becerra González, J. and Bednarek, W. and Bernardini, E. and Biasuzzi, B. and Biland, A. and Blanch, O. and Bonnefoy, S. and Bonnoli, G. and Borracci, F. and Bretz, T. and Carmona, E. and Carosi, A. and Colin, P. and Colombo, E. and Contreras, J. L. and Cortina, J. and Covino, S. and Da Vela, P. and Dazzi, F. and De Angelis, A. and De Caneva, G. and De Lotto, B. and de Oña Wilhelmi, E. and Delgado Mendez, C. and Di Pierro, F. and Dominis Prester, D. and Dorner, D. and Doro, M. and Einecke, S. and Eisenacher, D. and Elsaesser, D. and Fernández-Barral, A. and Fidalgo, D. and Fonseca, M. V. and Font, L. and Frantzen, K. and Fruck, C. and Galindo, D. and García López, R. J. and Garczarczyk, M. and Garrido Terrats, D. and Gaug, M. and Godinović, N. and González Muñoz, A. and Gozzini, S. R. and Hadasch, D. and Hanabata, Y. and Hayashida, M. and Herrera, J. and Hose, J. and Hrupec, D. and Idec, W. and Kadenius, V. and Kellermann, H. and Knoetig, M. L. and Kodani, K. and Konno, Y. and Krause, J. and Kubo, H. and Kushida, J. and La Barbera, A. and Lelas, D. and Lewandowska, N. and Lindfors, E. and Lombardi, S. and Longo, F. and López, M. and López-Coto, R. and López-Oramas, A. and Lorenz, E. and Lozano, I. and Makariev, M. and Mallot, K. and Maneva, G. and Mannheim, K. and Maraschi, L. and Marcote, B. and Mariotti, M. and Martínez, M. and Mazin, D. and Menzel, U. and Miranda, J. M. and Mirzoyan, R. and Moralejo, A. and Munar-Adrover, P. and Nakajima, D. and Neustroev, V. and Niedzwiecki, A. and Nievas Rosillo, M. and Nilsson, K. and Nishijima, K. and Noda, K. and Orito, R. and Overkemping, A. and Paiano, S. and Palatiello, M. and Paneque, D. and Paoletti, R. and Paredes, J. M. and Paredes-Fortuny, X. and Persic, M. and Poutanen, J. and Prada Moroni, P. G. and Prandini, E. and Puljak, I. and Reinthal, R. and Rhode, W. and Ribó, M. and Rico, J. and Rodriguez Garcia, J. and Saito, T. and Saito, K. and Satalecka, K. and Scalzotto, V. and Scapin, V. and Schweizer, T. and Shore, S. N. and Sillanpää, A. and Sitarek, J. and Snidaric, I. and Sobczynska, D. and Stamerra, A. and Steinbring, T. and Strzys, M. and Takalo, L. and Takami, H. and Tavecchio, F. and Temnikov, P. and Terzić, T. and Tescaro, D. and Teshima, M. and Thaele, J. and Torres, D. F. and Toyama, T. and Treves, A. and Vogler, P. and Will, M. and Zanin, R. and Buson, S. and D’Ammando, F. and Lähteenmäki, A. and Hovatta, T. and Kovalev, Y. Y. and Lister, M. L. and Max-Moerbeck, W. and Mundell, C. and Pushkarev, A. B. and Rastorgueva-Foi, E. and Readhead, A. C. S. and Richards, J. L. and Tammi, J. and Sanchez, D. A. and Tornikoski, M. and Savolainen, T. and Steele, I.},
abstractNote = {1ES 1011+496 (z = 0.212) was discovered in very high-energy (VHE, E> 100 GeV) γ rays with MAGIC in 2007. The absence of simultaneous data at lower energies led to an incomplete characterization of the broadband spectral energy distribution (SED). In this paper, we study the source properties and the emission mechanisms, probing whether a simple one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) scenario is able to explain the observed broadband spectrum. We analyzed data in the range from VHE to radio data from 2011 and 2012 collected by MAGIC, Fermi-LAT, Swift, KVA, OVRO, and Metsähovi in addition to optical polarimetry data and radio maps from the Liverpool Telescope and MOJAVE. The VHE spectrum was fit with a simple power law with a photon index of 3.69 ± 0.22 and a flux above 150 GeV of (1.46 ± 0.16) x 10-11 ph cm-2s-1. The source 1ES 1011+496 was found to be in a generally quiescent state at all observed wavelengths, showing only moderate variability from radio to X-rays. A low degree of polarization of less than 10% was measured in optical, while some bright features polarized up to 60% were observed in the radio jet. A similar trend in the rotation of the electric vector position angle was found in optical and radio. The radio maps indicated a superluminal motion of 1.8 ± 0.4 c, which is the highest speed statistically significant measured so far in a high-frequency-peaked BL Lac. For the first time, the high-energy bump in the broadband SED of 1ES 1011+496 could be fully characterized from 0.1 GeV to 1 TeV, which permitted a more reliable interpretation within the one-zone SSC scenario. Finally, the polarimetry data suggest that at least part of the optical emission has its origin in some of the bright radio features, while the low polarization in optical might be due to the contribution of parts of the radio jet with different orientations of the magnetic field with respect to the optical emission.},
doi = {10.1051/0004-6361/201527176},
journal = {Astronomy and Astrophysics},
number = ,
volume = 591,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {6}
}

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    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Long-term optical monitoring of TeV emitting blazars: I. Data analysis⋆
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    Insights into the emission of the blazar 1ES 1011+496 through unprecedented broadband observations during 2011 and 2012
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    Long-term optical monitoring of TeV emitting blazars: I. Data analysis⋆
    journal, December 2018