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Title: Fermi-LAT Observations of the LIGO Event GW150914

The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has an instantaneous field of view (FoV) covering ~1/5 of the sky and it completes a survey of the entire sky in high-energy gamma-rays every 3 hr. It enables searches for transient phenomena over timescales from milliseconds to years. Among these phenomena could be electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational wave (GW) sources. In this study, we present a detailed study of the LAT observations relevant to Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) event GW150914, which is the first direct detection of gravitational waves and has been interpreted as being due to the coalescence of two stellar-mass black holes. The localization region for GW150914 was outside the LAT FoV at the time of the GW signal. However, as part of routine survey observations, the LAT observed the entire LIGO localization region within ~70 minutes of the trigger and thus enabled a comprehensive search for a γ-ray counterpart to GW150914. Finally, the study of the LAT data presented here did not find any potential counterparts to GW150914, but it did provide limits on the presence of a transient counterpart above 100 MeV on timescales of hours to days over the entire GW150914 localization region.
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Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-76SF00515
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal. Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 823; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-8213
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Research Org:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Contributing Orgs:
Fermi LAT Collaboration
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; gamma-ray burst; gamma-rays; gravitational waves; observational methods
OSTI Identifier:
1355694

Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Albert, A., Anderson, B., Arimoto, M., Atwood, W. B., Axelsson, M., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Baring, M. G., Bastieri, D., Gonzalez, J. Becerra, Bellazzini, R., Bissaldi, E., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonino, R., Bottacini, E., Brandt, T. J., Bregeon, J., Britto, R. J., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Burnett, T. H., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caputo, R., Caragiulo, M., Caraveo, P. A., Casandjian, J. M., Cavazzuti, E., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Chiang, J., Chiaro, G., Ciprini, S., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Cominsky, L. R., Condon, B., Costanza, F., Cuoco, A., Cutini, S., D’Ammando, F., Palma, F. de, Desiante, R., Digel, S. W., Lalla, N. Di, Mauro, M. Di, Venere, L. Di, Domínguez, A., Drell, P. S., Dubois, R., Dumora, D., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Ferrara, E. C., Franckowiak, A., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Giglietto, N., Giomi, M., Giommi, P., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Gomez-Vargas, G. A., Granot, J., Green, D., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Grove, J. E., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Hadasch, D., Harding, A. K., Hays, E., Hewitt, J. W., Hill, A. B., Horan, D., Jogler, T., Jóhannesson, G., Kamae, T., Kensei, S., Kocevski, D., Kuss, M., Mura, G. La, Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Li, J., Li, L., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Madejski, G. M., Magill, J., Maldera, S., Manfreda, A., Marelli, M., Mayer, M., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Meyer, M., Michelson, P. F., Mirabal, N., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monzani, M. E., Moretti, E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Negro, M., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Omodei, N., Orienti, M., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Paneque, D., Perkins, J. S., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Racusin, J. L., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Ritz, S., Rochester, L. S., Romani, R. W., Parkinson, P. M. Saz, Sgrò, C., Simone, D., Siskind, E. J., Smith, D. A., Spada, F., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Suson, D. J., Tajima, H., Thayer, J. G., Thayer, J. B., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Torres, D. F., Troja, E., Uchiyama, Y., Venters, T. M., Vianello, G., Wood, K. S., Wood, M., Zaharijas, G., Zhu, S., and Zimmer, S.. Fermi-LAT Observations of the LIGO Event GW150914. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/823/1/L2.
Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Albert, A., Anderson, B., Arimoto, M., Atwood, W. B., Axelsson, M., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Baring, M. G., Bastieri, D., Gonzalez, J. Becerra, Bellazzini, R., Bissaldi, E., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonino, R., Bottacini, E., Brandt, T. J., Bregeon, J., Britto, R. J., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Burnett, T. H., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caputo, R., Caragiulo, M., Caraveo, P. A., Casandjian, J. M., Cavazzuti, E., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Chiang, J., Chiaro, G., Ciprini, S., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Cominsky, L. R., Condon, B., Costanza, F., Cuoco, A., Cutini, S., D’Ammando, F., Palma, F. de, Desiante, R., Digel, S. W., Lalla, N. Di, Mauro, M. Di, Venere, L. Di, Domínguez, A., Drell, P. S., Dubois, R., Dumora, D., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Ferrara, E. C., Franckowiak, A., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Giglietto, N., Giomi, M., Giommi, P., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Gomez-Vargas, G. A., Granot, J., Green, D., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Grove, J. E., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Hadasch, D., Harding, A. K., Hays, E., Hewitt, J. W., Hill, A. B., Horan, D., Jogler, T., Jóhannesson, G., Kamae, T., Kensei, S., Kocevski, D., Kuss, M., Mura, G. La, Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Li, J., Li, L., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Madejski, G. M., Magill, J., Maldera, S., Manfreda, A., Marelli, M., Mayer, M., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Meyer, M., Michelson, P. F., Mirabal, N., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monzani, M. E., Moretti, E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Negro, M., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Omodei, N., Orienti, M., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Paneque, D., Perkins, J. S., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Racusin, J. L., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Ritz, S., Rochester, L. S., Romani, R. W., Parkinson, P. M. Saz, Sgrò, C., Simone, D., Siskind, E. J., Smith, D. A., Spada, F., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Suson, D. J., Tajima, H., Thayer, J. G., Thayer, J. B., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Torres, D. F., Troja, E., Uchiyama, Y., Venters, T. M., Vianello, G., Wood, K. S., Wood, M., Zaharijas, G., Zhu, S., & Zimmer, S.. Fermi-LAT Observations of the LIGO Event GW150914. United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/823/1/L2.
Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Albert, A., Anderson, B., Arimoto, M., Atwood, W. B., Axelsson, M., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Baring, M. G., Bastieri, D., Gonzalez, J. Becerra, Bellazzini, R., Bissaldi, E., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonino, R., Bottacini, E., Brandt, T. J., Bregeon, J., Britto, R. J., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Burnett, T. H., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caputo, R., Caragiulo, M., Caraveo, P. A., Casandjian, J. M., Cavazzuti, E., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Chiang, J., Chiaro, G., Ciprini, S., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Cominsky, L. R., Condon, B., Costanza, F., Cuoco, A., Cutini, S., D’Ammando, F., Palma, F. de, Desiante, R., Digel, S. W., Lalla, N. Di, Mauro, M. Di, Venere, L. Di, Domínguez, A., Drell, P. S., Dubois, R., Dumora, D., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Ferrara, E. C., Franckowiak, A., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Giglietto, N., Giomi, M., Giommi, P., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Gomez-Vargas, G. A., Granot, J., Green, D., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Grove, J. E., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Hadasch, D., Harding, A. K., Hays, E., Hewitt, J. W., Hill, A. B., Horan, D., Jogler, T., Jóhannesson, G., Kamae, T., Kensei, S., Kocevski, D., Kuss, M., Mura, G. La, Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Li, J., Li, L., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Madejski, G. M., Magill, J., Maldera, S., Manfreda, A., Marelli, M., Mayer, M., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Meyer, M., Michelson, P. F., Mirabal, N., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monzani, M. E., Moretti, E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Negro, M., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Omodei, N., Orienti, M., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Paneque, D., Perkins, J. S., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Racusin, J. L., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Ritz, S., Rochester, L. S., Romani, R. W., Parkinson, P. M. Saz, Sgrò, C., Simone, D., Siskind, E. J., Smith, D. A., Spada, F., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Suson, D. J., Tajima, H., Thayer, J. G., Thayer, J. B., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Torres, D. F., Troja, E., Uchiyama, Y., Venters, T. M., Vianello, G., Wood, K. S., Wood, M., Zaharijas, G., Zhu, S., and Zimmer, S.. 2016. "Fermi-LAT Observations of the LIGO Event GW150914". United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/823/1/L2. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1355694.
@article{osti_1355694,
title = {Fermi-LAT Observations of the LIGO Event GW150914},
author = {Ackermann, M. and Ajello, M. and Albert, A. and Anderson, B. and Arimoto, M. and Atwood, W. B. and Axelsson, M. and Baldini, L. and Ballet, J. and Barbiellini, G. and Baring, M. G. and Bastieri, D. and Gonzalez, J. Becerra and Bellazzini, R. and Bissaldi, E. and Blandford, R. D. and Bloom, E. D. and Bonino, R. and Bottacini, E. and Brandt, T. J. and Bregeon, J. and Britto, R. J. and Bruel, P. and Buehler, R. and Burnett, T. H. and Buson, S. and Caliandro, G. A. and Cameron, R. A. and Caputo, R. and Caragiulo, M. and Caraveo, P. A. and Casandjian, J. M. and Cavazzuti, E. and Charles, E. and Chekhtman, A. and Chiang, J. and Chiaro, G. and Ciprini, S. and Cohen-Tanugi, J. and Cominsky, L. R. and Condon, B. and Costanza, F. and Cuoco, A. and Cutini, S. and D’Ammando, F. and Palma, F. de and Desiante, R. and Digel, S. W. and Lalla, N. Di and Mauro, M. Di and Venere, L. Di and Domínguez, A. and Drell, P. S. and Dubois, R. and Dumora, D. and Favuzzi, C. and Fegan, S. J. and Ferrara, E. C. and Franckowiak, A. and Fukazawa, Y. and Funk, S. and Fusco, P. and Gargano, F. and Gasparrini, D. and Gehrels, N. and Giglietto, N. and Giomi, M. and Giommi, P. and Giordano, F. and Giroletti, M. and Glanzman, T. and Godfrey, G. and Gomez-Vargas, G. A. and Granot, J. and Green, D. and Grenier, I. A. and Grondin, M. -H. and Grove, J. E. and Guillemot, L. and Guiriec, S. and Hadasch, D. and Harding, A. K. and Hays, E. and Hewitt, J. W. and Hill, A. B. and Horan, D. and Jogler, T. and Jóhannesson, G. and Kamae, T. and Kensei, S. and Kocevski, D. and Kuss, M. and Mura, G. La and Larsson, S. and Latronico, L. and Lemoine-Goumard, M. and Li, J. and Li, L. and Longo, F. and Loparco, F. and Lovellette, M. N. and Lubrano, P. and Madejski, G. M. and Magill, J. and Maldera, S. and Manfreda, A. and Marelli, M. and Mayer, M. and Mazziotta, M. N. and McEnery, J. E. and Meyer, M. and Michelson, P. F. and Mirabal, N. and Mizuno, T. and Moiseev, A. A. and Monzani, M. E. and Moretti, E. and Morselli, A. and Moskalenko, I. V. and Murgia, S. and Negro, M. and Nuss, E. and Ohsugi, T. and Omodei, N. and Orienti, M. and Orlando, E. and Ormes, J. F. and Paneque, D. and Perkins, J. S. and Pesce-Rollins, M. and Piron, F. and Pivato, G. and Porter, T. A. and Racusin, J. L. and Rainò, S. and Rando, R. and Razzaque, S. and Reimer, A. and Reimer, O. and Reposeur, T. and Ritz, S. and Rochester, L. S. and Romani, R. W. and Parkinson, P. M. Saz and Sgrò, C. and Simone, D. and Siskind, E. J. and Smith, D. A. and Spada, F. and Spandre, G. and Spinelli, P. and Suson, D. J. and Tajima, H. and Thayer, J. G. and Thayer, J. B. and Thompson, D. J. and Tibaldo, L. and Torres, D. F. and Troja, E. and Uchiyama, Y. and Venters, T. M. and Vianello, G. and Wood, K. S. and Wood, M. and Zaharijas, G. and Zhu, S. and Zimmer, S.},
abstractNote = {The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has an instantaneous field of view (FoV) covering ~1/5 of the sky and it completes a survey of the entire sky in high-energy gamma-rays every 3 hr. It enables searches for transient phenomena over timescales from milliseconds to years. Among these phenomena could be electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational wave (GW) sources. In this study, we present a detailed study of the LAT observations relevant to Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) event GW150914, which is the first direct detection of gravitational waves and has been interpreted as being due to the coalescence of two stellar-mass black holes. The localization region for GW150914 was outside the LAT FoV at the time of the GW signal. However, as part of routine survey observations, the LAT observed the entire LIGO localization region within ~70 minutes of the trigger and thus enabled a comprehensive search for a γ-ray counterpart to GW150914. Finally, the study of the LAT data presented here did not find any potential counterparts to GW150914, but it did provide limits on the presence of a transient counterpart above 100 MeV on timescales of hours to days over the entire GW150914 localization region.},
doi = {10.3847/2041-8205/823/1/L2},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal. Letters},
number = 1,
volume = 823,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {5}
}