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Title: 2FHL: The Second Catalog of Hard Fermi-LAT Sources

Abstract

We present a catalog of sources detected above 50 GeV by the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) in 80 months of data. The newly delivered Pass 8 event-level analysis allows the detection and characterization of sources in the 50 GeV–2TeV energy range. In this energy band, Fermi - LAT has detected 360 sources, which constitute the second catalog of hard Fermi -LAT sources (2FHL). The improved angular resolution enables the precise localization of point sources (~1.'7 radius at 68 % C. L.) and the detection and characterization of spatially extended sources. We find that 86% of the sources can be associated with counterparts at other wavelengths, of which the majority (75%) are active galactic nuclei and the rest (11%) are Galactic sources. Only 25% of the 2FHL sources have been previously detected by Cherenkov telescopes, implying that the 2FHL provides a reservoir of candidates to be followed up at very high energies. This work closes the energy gap between the observations performed at GeV energies by Fermi -LAT on orbit and the observations performed at higher energies by Cherenkov telescopes from the ground.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Contributing Org.:
Fermi LAT Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1355671
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal. Supplement Series (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal. Supplement Series (Online); Journal Volume: 222; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4365
Publisher:
American Astronomical Society/IOP
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; catalogs; gamma-rays

Citation Formats

Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Atwood, W. B., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Gonzalez, J. Becerra, Bellazzini, R., Bissaldi, E., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonino, R., Bottacini, E., Brandt, T. J., Bregeon, J., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caputo, R., Caragiulo, M., Caraveo, P. A., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Chiaro, G., Ciprini, S., Cohen, J. M., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Cominsky, L. R., Conrad, J., Cuoco, A., Cutini, S., D’Ammando, F., Angelis, A. de, Palma, F. de, Desiante, R., Mauro, M. Di, Venere, L. Di, Domínguez, A., Drell, P. S., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Fortin, P., Franckowiak, A., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Furniss, A. K., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Giglietto, N., Giommi, P., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Harding, A. K., Hays, E., Hewitt, J. W., Hill, A. B., Horan, D., Iafrate, G., Hartmann, Dieter, Jogler, T., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Kamae, T., Kataoka, J., Knödlseder, J., Kuss, M., Mura, G. La, Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Li, J., Li, L., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Madejski, G. M., Maldera, S., Manfreda, A., Mayer, M., Mazziotta, M. N., Michelson, P. F., Mirabal, N., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Omodei, N., Orienti, M., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Paneque, D., Perkins, J. S., Pesce-Rollins, M., Petrosian, V., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Romani, R. W., Sánchez-Conde, M., Parkinson, P. M. Saz, Schmid, J., Schulz, A., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Spada, F., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Suson, D. J., Tajima, H., Takahashi, H., Takahashi, M., Takahashi, T., Thayer, J. B., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Troja, E., Vianello, G., Wood, K. S., Wood, M., Yassine, M., Zaharijas, G., and Zimmer, S. 2FHL: The Second Catalog of Hard Fermi-LAT Sources. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.3847/0067-0049/222/1/5.
Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Atwood, W. B., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Gonzalez, J. Becerra, Bellazzini, R., Bissaldi, E., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonino, R., Bottacini, E., Brandt, T. J., Bregeon, J., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caputo, R., Caragiulo, M., Caraveo, P. A., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Chiaro, G., Ciprini, S., Cohen, J. M., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Cominsky, L. R., Conrad, J., Cuoco, A., Cutini, S., D’Ammando, F., Angelis, A. de, Palma, F. de, Desiante, R., Mauro, M. Di, Venere, L. Di, Domínguez, A., Drell, P. S., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Fortin, P., Franckowiak, A., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Furniss, A. K., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Giglietto, N., Giommi, P., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Harding, A. K., Hays, E., Hewitt, J. W., Hill, A. B., Horan, D., Iafrate, G., Hartmann, Dieter, Jogler, T., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Kamae, T., Kataoka, J., Knödlseder, J., Kuss, M., Mura, G. La, Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Li, J., Li, L., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Madejski, G. M., Maldera, S., Manfreda, A., Mayer, M., Mazziotta, M. N., Michelson, P. F., Mirabal, N., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Omodei, N., Orienti, M., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Paneque, D., Perkins, J. S., Pesce-Rollins, M., Petrosian, V., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Romani, R. W., Sánchez-Conde, M., Parkinson, P. M. Saz, Schmid, J., Schulz, A., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Spada, F., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Suson, D. J., Tajima, H., Takahashi, H., Takahashi, M., Takahashi, T., Thayer, J. B., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Troja, E., Vianello, G., Wood, K. S., Wood, M., Yassine, M., Zaharijas, G., & Zimmer, S. 2FHL: The Second Catalog of Hard Fermi-LAT Sources. United States. doi:10.3847/0067-0049/222/1/5.
Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Atwood, W. B., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Gonzalez, J. Becerra, Bellazzini, R., Bissaldi, E., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonino, R., Bottacini, E., Brandt, T. J., Bregeon, J., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caputo, R., Caragiulo, M., Caraveo, P. A., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Chiaro, G., Ciprini, S., Cohen, J. M., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Cominsky, L. R., Conrad, J., Cuoco, A., Cutini, S., D’Ammando, F., Angelis, A. de, Palma, F. de, Desiante, R., Mauro, M. Di, Venere, L. Di, Domínguez, A., Drell, P. S., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Fortin, P., Franckowiak, A., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Furniss, A. K., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Giglietto, N., Giommi, P., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Harding, A. K., Hays, E., Hewitt, J. W., Hill, A. B., Horan, D., Iafrate, G., Hartmann, Dieter, Jogler, T., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Kamae, T., Kataoka, J., Knödlseder, J., Kuss, M., Mura, G. La, Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Li, J., Li, L., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Madejski, G. M., Maldera, S., Manfreda, A., Mayer, M., Mazziotta, M. N., Michelson, P. F., Mirabal, N., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Omodei, N., Orienti, M., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Paneque, D., Perkins, J. S., Pesce-Rollins, M., Petrosian, V., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Romani, R. W., Sánchez-Conde, M., Parkinson, P. M. Saz, Schmid, J., Schulz, A., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Spada, F., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Suson, D. J., Tajima, H., Takahashi, H., Takahashi, M., Takahashi, T., Thayer, J. B., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Troja, E., Vianello, G., Wood, K. S., Wood, M., Yassine, M., Zaharijas, G., and Zimmer, S. Thu . "2FHL: The Second Catalog of Hard Fermi-LAT Sources". United States. doi:10.3847/0067-0049/222/1/5. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1355671.
@article{osti_1355671,
title = {2FHL: The Second Catalog of Hard Fermi-LAT Sources},
author = {Ackermann, M. and Ajello, M. and Atwood, W. B. and Baldini, L. and Ballet, J. and Barbiellini, G. and Bastieri, D. and Gonzalez, J. Becerra and Bellazzini, R. and Bissaldi, E. and Blandford, R. D. and Bloom, E. D. and Bonino, R. and Bottacini, E. and Brandt, T. J. and Bregeon, J. and Bruel, P. and Buehler, R. and Buson, S. and Caliandro, G. A. and Cameron, R. A. and Caputo, R. and Caragiulo, M. and Caraveo, P. A. and Cavazzuti, E. and Cecchi, C. and Charles, E. and Chekhtman, A. and Cheung, C. C. and Chiang, J. and Chiaro, G. and Ciprini, S. and Cohen, J. M. and Cohen-Tanugi, J. and Cominsky, L. R. and Conrad, J. and Cuoco, A. and Cutini, S. and D’Ammando, F. and Angelis, A. de and Palma, F. de and Desiante, R. and Mauro, M. Di and Venere, L. Di and Domínguez, A. and Drell, P. S. and Favuzzi, C. and Fegan, S. J. and Ferrara, E. C. and Focke, W. B. and Fortin, P. and Franckowiak, A. and Fukazawa, Y. and Funk, S. and Furniss, A. K. and Fusco, P. and Gargano, F. and Gasparrini, D. and Giglietto, N. and Giommi, P. and Giordano, F. and Giroletti, M. and Glanzman, T. and Godfrey, G. and Grenier, I. A. and Grondin, M. -H. and Guillemot, L. and Guiriec, S. and Harding, A. K. and Hays, E. and Hewitt, J. W. and Hill, A. B. and Horan, D. and Iafrate, G. and Hartmann, Dieter and Jogler, T. and Jóhannesson, G. and Johnson, A. S. and Kamae, T. and Kataoka, J. and Knödlseder, J. and Kuss, M. and Mura, G. La and Larsson, S. and Latronico, L. and Lemoine-Goumard, M. and Li, J. and Li, L. and Longo, F. and Loparco, F. and Lott, B. and Lovellette, M. N. and Lubrano, P. and Madejski, G. M. and Maldera, S. and Manfreda, A. and Mayer, M. and Mazziotta, M. N. and Michelson, P. F. and Mirabal, N. and Mitthumsiri, W. and Mizuno, T. and Moiseev, A. A. and Monzani, M. E. and Morselli, A. and Moskalenko, I. V. and Murgia, S. and Nuss, E. and Ohsugi, T. and Omodei, N. and Orienti, M. and Orlando, E. and Ormes, J. F. and Paneque, D. and Perkins, J. S. and Pesce-Rollins, M. and Petrosian, V. and Piron, F. and Pivato, G. and Porter, T. A. and Rainò, S. and Rando, R. and Razzano, M. and Razzaque, S. and Reimer, A. and Reimer, O. and Reposeur, T. and Romani, R. W. and Sánchez-Conde, M. and Parkinson, P. M. Saz and Schmid, J. and Schulz, A. and Sgrò, C. and Siskind, E. J. and Spada, F. and Spandre, G. and Spinelli, P. and Suson, D. J. and Tajima, H. and Takahashi, H. and Takahashi, M. and Takahashi, T. and Thayer, J. B. and Thompson, D. J. and Tibaldo, L. and Torres, D. F. and Tosti, G. and Troja, E. and Vianello, G. and Wood, K. S. and Wood, M. and Yassine, M. and Zaharijas, G. and Zimmer, S.},
abstractNote = {We present a catalog of sources detected above 50 GeV by the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) in 80 months of data. The newly delivered Pass 8 event-level analysis allows the detection and characterization of sources in the 50 GeV–2TeV energy range. In this energy band, Fermi - LAT has detected 360 sources, which constitute the second catalog of hard Fermi -LAT sources (2FHL). The improved angular resolution enables the precise localization of point sources (~1.'7 radius at 68 % C. L.) and the detection and characterization of spatially extended sources. We find that 86% of the sources can be associated with counterparts at other wavelengths, of which the majority (75%) are active galactic nuclei and the rest (11%) are Galactic sources. Only 25% of the 2FHL sources have been previously detected by Cherenkov telescopes, implying that the 2FHL provides a reservoir of candidates to be followed up at very high energies. This work closes the energy gap between the observations performed at GeV energies by Fermi -LAT on orbit and the observations performed at higher energies by Cherenkov telescopes from the ground.},
doi = {10.3847/0067-0049/222/1/5},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal. Supplement Series (Online)},
number = 1,
volume = 222,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {1}
}

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AN EMPIRICAL DETERMINATION OF THE INTERGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT USING NEAR-INFRARED DEEP GALAXY SURVEY DATA OUT TO 5 μm AND THE GAMMA-RAY OPACITY OF THE UNIVERSE
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Spectroscopy of Broad-Line Blazars from 1lac
journal, March 2012


Spectroscopy of the Largest ever γ-Ray-Selected bl lac Sample
journal, January 2013


High resolution spectroscopy of Balmer-dominated shocks in the RCW 86, Kepler and SN 1006 supernova remnants
journal, August 2003


A Determination of the Intergalactic Redshift-Dependent Ultraviolet-Optical-Nir Photon Density Using deep Galaxy Survey data and the Gamma-Ray Opacity of the Universe
journal, December 2012


GIANT GAMMA-RAY BUBBLES FROM FERMI -LAT: ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS ACTIVITY OR BIPOLAR GALACTIC WIND?
journal, November 2010


Chandra Observations of the Central Region of A3112
journal, September 2003

  • Takizawa, Motokazu; Sarazin, Craig L.; Blanton, Elizabeth L.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 595, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/377218

Fermi LARGE AREA TELESCOPE DETECTION OF TWO VERY-HIGH-ENERGY ( E > 100 GeV) γ-RAY PHOTONS FROM THE z = 1.1 BLAZAR PKS 0426–380
journal, October 2013


    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Optical polarization of high-energy BL Lacertae objects
    journal, December 2016


    Multi-Messenger Physics With the Pierre Auger Observatory
    journal, April 2019

    • Kampert, Karl-Heinz; Alejandro Mostafa, Miguel; Zas, Enrique
    • Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences, Vol. 6
    • DOI: 10.3389/fspas.2019.00024

    2FHL: The Second Catalog of Hard FERMI-LAT Sources
    text, January 2016

    • Ackermann, Markus; Ajello, M.; Atwood, W. B.
    • Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Hamburg
    • DOI: 10.3204/pubdb-2016-06168

    Active galactic nuclei: what’s in a name?
    journal, August 2017

    • Padovani, P.; Alexander, D. M.; Assef, R. J.
    • The Astronomy and Astrophysics Review, Vol. 25, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1007/s00159-017-0102-9

    2WHSP: A multi-frequency selected catalogue of high energy and very high energy γ -ray blazars and blazar candidates
    journal, January 2017


    Searching for γ -ray signature in WHSP blazars
    journal, February 2017


    The supernova remnant W49B as seen with H.E.S.S. and Fermi-LAT
    journal, April 2018


    A fast, very-high-energy γ -ray flare from BL Lacertae during a period of multi-wavelength activity in June 2015
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    Extreme- and high-synchrotron-peaked blazars at the limit of Fermi-LAT detectability: the γ-ray spectrum of 1BIGB sources
    journal, July 2018

    • Arsioli, B.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Prandini, E.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 480, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty1975

    Investigation of Two Fermi -LAT Gamma-Ray Blazars Coincident with High-energy Neutrinos Detected by IceCube
    journal, July 2019