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Title: The spectrum of isotropic diffuse gamma-ray emission between 100 MeV and 820 GeV

Abstract

We present that the γ-ray sky can be decomposed into individually detected sources, diffuse emission attributed to the interactions of Galactic cosmic rays with gas and radiation fields, and a residual all-sky emission component commonly called the isotropic diffuse γ-ray background (IGRB). The IGRB comprises all extragalactic emissions too faint or too diffuse to be resolved in a given survey, as well as any residual Galactic foregrounds that are approximately isotropic. The first IGRB measurement with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) used 10 months of sky-survey data and considered an energy range between 200 MeV and 100 GeV. Improvements in event selection and characterization of cosmic-ray backgrounds, better understanding of the diffuse Galactic emission (DGE), and a longer data accumulation of 50 months allow for a refinement and extension of the IGRB measurement with the LAT, now covering the energy range from 100 MeV to 820 GeV. The IGRB spectrum shows a significant high-energy cutoff feature and can be well described over nearly four decades in energy by a power law with exponential cutoff having a spectral index of 2.32 ± 0.02 and a break energy of (279 ± 52) GeV usingmore » our baseline DGE model. In conclusion, the total intensity attributed to the IGRB is (7.2 ± 0.6) × 10–6 cm–2 s–1 sr–1 above 100 MeV, with an additional +15%/–30% systematic uncertainty due to the Galactic diffuse foregrounds.« less

Authors:
; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more »; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo « less
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
Contributing Org.:
Fermi LAT Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1355173
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 799; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; gamma rays; diffuse background; diffuse radiation

Citation Formats

Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Albert, A., Atwood, W. B., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Bissaldi, E., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bottacini, E., Brandt, T. J., Bregeon, J., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caragiulo, M., Caraveo, P. A., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Chiang, J., Chiaro, G., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Conrad, J., Cuoco, A., Cutini, S., D'Ammando, F., de Angelis, A., de Palma, F., Dermer, C. D., Digel, S. W., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Favuzzi, C., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Franckowiak, A., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Germani, S., Giglietto, N., Giommi, P., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Godfrey, G., Gomez-Vargas, G. A., Grenier, I. A., Guiriec, S., Gustafsson, M., Hadasch, D., Hayashi, K., Hays, E., Hewitt, J. W., Ippoliti, P., Jogler, T., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, W. N., Kamae, T., Kataoka, J., Knödlseder, J., Kuss, M., Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Li, J., Li, L., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Madejski, G. M., Manfreda, A., Massaro, F., Mayer, M., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nemmen, R., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Perkins, J. S., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Ritz, S., Romani, R. W., Sánchez-Conde, M., Schaal, M., Schulz, A., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Strong, A. W., Suson, D. J., Takahashi, H., Thayer, J. G., Thayer, J. B., Tibaldo, L., Tinivella, M., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Troja, E., Uchiyama, Y., Vianello, G., Werner, M., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., Wood, M., Zaharijas, G., and Zimmer, S. The spectrum of isotropic diffuse gamma-ray emission between 100 MeV and 820 GeV. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/799/1/86.
Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Albert, A., Atwood, W. B., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Bissaldi, E., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bottacini, E., Brandt, T. J., Bregeon, J., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caragiulo, M., Caraveo, P. A., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Chiang, J., Chiaro, G., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Conrad, J., Cuoco, A., Cutini, S., D'Ammando, F., de Angelis, A., de Palma, F., Dermer, C. D., Digel, S. W., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Favuzzi, C., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Franckowiak, A., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Germani, S., Giglietto, N., Giommi, P., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Godfrey, G., Gomez-Vargas, G. A., Grenier, I. A., Guiriec, S., Gustafsson, M., Hadasch, D., Hayashi, K., Hays, E., Hewitt, J. W., Ippoliti, P., Jogler, T., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, W. N., Kamae, T., Kataoka, J., Knödlseder, J., Kuss, M., Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Li, J., Li, L., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Madejski, G. M., Manfreda, A., Massaro, F., Mayer, M., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nemmen, R., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Perkins, J. S., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Ritz, S., Romani, R. W., Sánchez-Conde, M., Schaal, M., Schulz, A., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Strong, A. W., Suson, D. J., Takahashi, H., Thayer, J. G., Thayer, J. B., Tibaldo, L., Tinivella, M., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Troja, E., Uchiyama, Y., Vianello, G., Werner, M., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., Wood, M., Zaharijas, G., & Zimmer, S. The spectrum of isotropic diffuse gamma-ray emission between 100 MeV and 820 GeV. United States. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/799/1/86
Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Albert, A., Atwood, W. B., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Bissaldi, E., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bottacini, E., Brandt, T. J., Bregeon, J., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caragiulo, M., Caraveo, P. A., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Chiang, J., Chiaro, G., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Conrad, J., Cuoco, A., Cutini, S., D'Ammando, F., de Angelis, A., de Palma, F., Dermer, C. D., Digel, S. W., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Favuzzi, C., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Franckowiak, A., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Germani, S., Giglietto, N., Giommi, P., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Godfrey, G., Gomez-Vargas, G. A., Grenier, I. A., Guiriec, S., Gustafsson, M., Hadasch, D., Hayashi, K., Hays, E., Hewitt, J. W., Ippoliti, P., Jogler, T., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, W. N., Kamae, T., Kataoka, J., Knödlseder, J., Kuss, M., Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Li, J., Li, L., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Madejski, G. M., Manfreda, A., Massaro, F., Mayer, M., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nemmen, R., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Perkins, J. S., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Ritz, S., Romani, R. W., Sánchez-Conde, M., Schaal, M., Schulz, A., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Strong, A. W., Suson, D. J., Takahashi, H., Thayer, J. G., Thayer, J. B., Tibaldo, L., Tinivella, M., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Troja, E., Uchiyama, Y., Vianello, G., Werner, M., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., Wood, M., Zaharijas, G., and Zimmer, S. Mon . "The spectrum of isotropic diffuse gamma-ray emission between 100 MeV and 820 GeV". United States. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/799/1/86. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1355173.
@article{osti_1355173,
title = {The spectrum of isotropic diffuse gamma-ray emission between 100 MeV and 820 GeV},
author = {Ackermann, M. and Ajello, M. and Albert, A. and Atwood, W. B. and Baldini, L. and Ballet, J. and Barbiellini, G. and Bastieri, D. and Bechtol, K. and Bellazzini, R. and Bissaldi, E. and Blandford, R. D. and Bloom, E. D. and Bottacini, E. and Brandt, T. J. and Bregeon, J. and Bruel, P. and Buehler, R. and Buson, S. and Caliandro, G. A. and Cameron, R. A. and Caragiulo, M. and Caraveo, P. A. and Cavazzuti, E. and Cecchi, C. and Charles, E. and Chekhtman, A. and Chiang, J. and Chiaro, G. and Ciprini, S. and Claus, R. and Cohen-Tanugi, J. and Conrad, J. and Cuoco, A. and Cutini, S. and D'Ammando, F. and de Angelis, A. and de Palma, F. and Dermer, C. D. and Digel, S. W. and do Couto e Silva, E. and Drell, P. S. and Favuzzi, C. and Ferrara, E. C. and Focke, W. B. and Franckowiak, A. and Fukazawa, Y. and Funk, S. and Fusco, P. and Gargano, F. and Gasparrini, D. and Germani, S. and Giglietto, N. and Giommi, P. and Giordano, F. and Giroletti, M. and Godfrey, G. and Gomez-Vargas, G. A. and Grenier, I. A. and Guiriec, S. and Gustafsson, M. and Hadasch, D. and Hayashi, K. and Hays, E. and Hewitt, J. W. and Ippoliti, P. and Jogler, T. and Jóhannesson, G. and Johnson, A. S. and Johnson, W. N. and Kamae, T. and Kataoka, J. and Knödlseder, J. and Kuss, M. and Larsson, S. and Latronico, L. and Li, J. and Li, L. and Longo, F. and Loparco, F. and Lott, B. and Lovellette, M. N. and Lubrano, P. and Madejski, G. M. and Manfreda, A. and Massaro, F. and Mayer, M. and Mazziotta, M. N. and McEnery, J. E. and Michelson, P. F. and Mitthumsiri, W. and Mizuno, T. and Moiseev, A. A. and Monzani, M. E. and Morselli, A. and Moskalenko, I. V. and Murgia, S. and Nemmen, R. and Nuss, E. and Ohsugi, T. and Omodei, N. and Orlando, E. and Ormes, J. F. and Paneque, D. and Panetta, J. H. and Perkins, J. S. and Pesce-Rollins, M. and Piron, F. and Pivato, G. and Porter, T. A. and Rainò, S. and Rando, R. and Razzano, M. and Razzaque, S. and Reimer, A. and Reimer, O. and Reposeur, T. and Ritz, S. and Romani, R. W. and Sánchez-Conde, M. and Schaal, M. and Schulz, A. and Sgrò, C. and Siskind, E. J. and Spandre, G. and Spinelli, P. and Strong, A. W. and Suson, D. J. and Takahashi, H. and Thayer, J. G. and Thayer, J. B. and Tibaldo, L. and Tinivella, M. and Torres, D. F. and Tosti, G. and Troja, E. and Uchiyama, Y. and Vianello, G. and Werner, M. and Winer, B. L. and Wood, K. S. and Wood, M. and Zaharijas, G. and Zimmer, S.},
abstractNote = {We present that the γ-ray sky can be decomposed into individually detected sources, diffuse emission attributed to the interactions of Galactic cosmic rays with gas and radiation fields, and a residual all-sky emission component commonly called the isotropic diffuse γ-ray background (IGRB). The IGRB comprises all extragalactic emissions too faint or too diffuse to be resolved in a given survey, as well as any residual Galactic foregrounds that are approximately isotropic. The first IGRB measurement with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) used 10 months of sky-survey data and considered an energy range between 200 MeV and 100 GeV. Improvements in event selection and characterization of cosmic-ray backgrounds, better understanding of the diffuse Galactic emission (DGE), and a longer data accumulation of 50 months allow for a refinement and extension of the IGRB measurement with the LAT, now covering the energy range from 100 MeV to 820 GeV. The IGRB spectrum shows a significant high-energy cutoff feature and can be well described over nearly four decades in energy by a power law with exponential cutoff having a spectral index of 2.32 ± 0.02 and a break energy of (279 ± 52) GeV using our baseline DGE model. In conclusion, the total intensity attributed to the IGRB is (7.2 ± 0.6) × 10–6 cm–2 s–1 sr–1 above 100 MeV, with an additional +15%/–30% systematic uncertainty due to the Galactic diffuse foregrounds.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/799/1/86},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
number = 1,
volume = 799,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {1}
}

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Table 1 Table 1: Event selection criteria for low-energy and high-energy samples, including modifications with respect to P7ULTRACLEAN

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Gamma-ray astrophysics
journal, August 1983


Search for dark matter annihilations towards the inner Galactic halo from 10 years of observations with H.E.S.S
text, January 2016

  • Abdallah, H.; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.
  • Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Hamburg
  • DOI: 10.3204/pubdb-2017-00279

Acceleration and Propagation of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays
conference, January 2005

  • Blasi, Pasquale
  • MAGNETIC FIELDS IN THE UNIVERSE: From Laboratory and Stars to Primordial Structures, AIP Conference Proceedings
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2077203

Resolving the Extragalactic $\gamma$-Ray Background above 50 GeV with the Fermi Large Area Telescope
text, January 2016

  • Ackermann, Markus; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.
  • Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Hamburg
  • DOI: 10.3204/pubdb-2016-06171

Open Questions in Cosmic-Ray Research at Ultrahigh Energies
text, January 2019

  • Alves Batista, Rafael; Biteau, Jonathan; Bustamante, Mauricio
  • Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Hamburg
  • DOI: 10.3204/pubdb-2019-02725

Constraints on Gamma-Ray and Neutrino Emission from NGC 1068 with the MAGIC Telescopes
journal, September 2019

  • Acciari, V. A.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 883, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab3a51

Testing the Dark Matter Scenario for PeV Neutrinos Observed in IceCube
text, January 2015


WIMP searches with gamma rays in the Fermi era: challenges, methods and results
text, January 2015


IceCube neutrinos, decaying dark matter, and the Hubble constant
text, January 2015


Ultrahard spectra of PeV neutrinos from supernovae in compact star clusters
text, January 2015


Hidden Cosmic-Ray Accelerators as an Origin of TeV-PeV Cosmic Neutrinos
text, January 2015


Evidence against star-forming galaxies as the dominant source of IceCube neutrinos
text, January 2015


A Composite Model for the 750 GeV Diphoton Excess
text, January 2016


Production of keV Sterile Neutrinos in Supernovae: New Constraints and Gamma Ray Observables
text, January 2016


Heavy right-handed neutrino dark matter and PeV neutrinos at IceCube
text, January 2016


Search for dark matter annihilations towards the inner Galactic halo from 10 years of observations with H.E.S.S
text, January 2016


Testing decay of astrophysical neutrinos with incomplete information
text, January 2016


The e-ASTROGAM mission (exploring the extreme Universe with gamma rays in the MeV-GeV range)
text, January 2016


Cross-correlation of weak lensing and gamma rays: implications for the nature of dark matter
text, January 2016


Bow Ties in the Sky II: Searching for Gamma-ray Halos in the Fermi Sky Using Anisotropy
text, January 2017


Active Galactic Nuclei: what's in a name?
text, January 2017


Cumulative Neutrino and Gamma-Ray Backgrounds from Halo and Galaxy Mergers
text, January 2017


New synthesis models of consistent extragalactic background light over cosmic time
text, January 2018


SED constraints on the highest-$z$ blazar jet: QSO J0906+6930
text, January 2018


Unexpected Dip in the Solar Gamma-Ray Spectrum
text, January 2018


Neutrinophilic Dark Matter in the epoch of IceCube and Fermi-LAT
text, January 2018


The Giant Radio Array for Neutrino Detection (GRAND): Science and Design
text, January 2018


Background for a gamma-ray satellite on a low-Earth orbit
text, January 2019


The Extragalactic Gamma-Ray Background from Core Dominated Radio Galaxies
text, January 2019


Searching for gamma-ray emission from galaxy clusters at low redshift
text, January 2019


Detection of cross-correlation between gravitational lensing and gamma rays
text, January 2019


Breaking a dark degeneracy: The gamma-ray signature of early matter domination
text, January 2019