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Title: The third catalog of active galactic nuclei detected by the Fermi large area telescope

Abstract

We present the third catalog of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) detected by the Fermi-LAT (3LAC). It is based on the third Fermi-LAT catalog (3FGL) of sources detected between 100 MeV and 300 GeV with a Test Statistic greater than 25, between 2008 August 4 and 2012 July 31. The 3LAC includes 1591 AGNs located at high Galactic latitudes ($$| b| \gt 10^\circ $$), a 71% increase over the second catalog based on 2 years of data. There are 28 duplicate associations, thus 1563 of the 2192 high-latitude gamma-ray sources of the 3FGL catalog are AGNs. Most of them (98%) are blazars. About half of the newly detected blazars are of unknown type, i.e., they lack spectroscopic information of sufficient quality to determine the strength of their emission lines. Based on their gamma-ray spectral properties, these sources are evenly split between flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and BL Lacs. The most abundant detected BL Lacs are of the high-synchrotron-peaked (HSP) type. There were about 50% of the BL Lacs that had no measured redshifts. A few new rare outliers (HSP-FSRQs and high-luminosity HSP BL Lacs) are reported. The general properties of the 3LAC sample confirm previous findings from earlier catalogs. The fraction of 3LAC blazars in the total population of blazars listed in BZCAT remains non-negligible even at the faint ends of the BZCAT-blazar radio, optical, and X-ray flux distributions, which hints that even the faintest known blazars could eventually shine in gamma-rays at LAT-detection levels. Furthermore, the energy-flux distributions of the different blazar populations are in good agreement with extrapolation from earlier catalogs.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
Contributing Org.:
Fermi LAT Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1354914
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 810; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; BL Lacertae objects: general; galaxies: active; galaxies: jets; gamma rays: galaxies

Citation Formats

Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Atwood, W. B., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Gonzalez, J. Becerra, Bellazzini, R., Bissaldi, E., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonino, R., Bottacini, E., Brandt, T. J., Bregeon, J., Britto, R. J., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caragiulo, M., Caraveo, P. A., Carpenter, B., Casandjian, J. M., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Chiaro, G., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Cominsky, L. R., Conrad, J., Cutini, S., D’Abrusco, R., D’Ammando, F., Angelis, A. de, Desiante, R., Digel, S. W., Venere, L. Di, Drell, P. S., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Ferrara, E. C., Finke, J., Focke, W. B., Franckowiak, A., Fuhrmann, L., Fukazawa, Y., Furniss, A. K., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Giglietto, N., Giommi, P., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Grove, J. E., Guiriec, S., Hewitt, J. W., Hill, A. B., Horan, D., Itoh, R., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, W. N., Kataoka, J., Kawano, T., Krauss, F., Kuss, M., Mura, G. La, Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Leto, C., Li, J., Li, L., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Madejski, G. M., Mayer, M., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Michelson, P. F., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nuss, E., Ohno, M., Ohsugi, T., Ojha, R., Omodei, N., Orienti, M., Orlando, E., Paggi, A., Paneque, D., Perkins, J. S., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Romani, R. W., Salvetti, D., Schaal, M., Schinzel, F. K., Schulz, A., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Sokolovsky, K. V., Spada, F., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Stawarz, L., Suson, D. J., Takahashi, H., Takahashi, T., Tanaka, Y., Thayer, J. G., Thayer, J. B., Tibaldo, L., Torres, D. F., Torresi, E., Tosti, G., Troja, E., Uchiyama, Y., Vianello, G., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., and Zimmer, S.. The third catalog of active galactic nuclei detected by the Fermi large area telescope. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/810/1/14.
Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Atwood, W. B., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Gonzalez, J. Becerra, Bellazzini, R., Bissaldi, E., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonino, R., Bottacini, E., Brandt, T. J., Bregeon, J., Britto, R. J., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caragiulo, M., Caraveo, P. A., Carpenter, B., Casandjian, J. M., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Chiaro, G., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Cominsky, L. R., Conrad, J., Cutini, S., D’Abrusco, R., D’Ammando, F., Angelis, A. de, Desiante, R., Digel, S. W., Venere, L. Di, Drell, P. S., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Ferrara, E. C., Finke, J., Focke, W. B., Franckowiak, A., Fuhrmann, L., Fukazawa, Y., Furniss, A. K., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Giglietto, N., Giommi, P., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Grove, J. E., Guiriec, S., Hewitt, J. W., Hill, A. B., Horan, D., Itoh, R., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, W. N., Kataoka, J., Kawano, T., Krauss, F., Kuss, M., Mura, G. La, Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Leto, C., Li, J., Li, L., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Madejski, G. M., Mayer, M., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Michelson, P. F., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nuss, E., Ohno, M., Ohsugi, T., Ojha, R., Omodei, N., Orienti, M., Orlando, E., Paggi, A., Paneque, D., Perkins, J. S., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Romani, R. W., Salvetti, D., Schaal, M., Schinzel, F. K., Schulz, A., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Sokolovsky, K. V., Spada, F., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Stawarz, L., Suson, D. J., Takahashi, H., Takahashi, T., Tanaka, Y., Thayer, J. G., Thayer, J. B., Tibaldo, L., Torres, D. F., Torresi, E., Tosti, G., Troja, E., Uchiyama, Y., Vianello, G., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., & Zimmer, S.. The third catalog of active galactic nuclei detected by the Fermi large area telescope. United States. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/810/1/14
Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Atwood, W. B., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Gonzalez, J. Becerra, Bellazzini, R., Bissaldi, E., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonino, R., Bottacini, E., Brandt, T. J., Bregeon, J., Britto, R. J., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caragiulo, M., Caraveo, P. A., Carpenter, B., Casandjian, J. M., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Chiaro, G., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Cominsky, L. R., Conrad, J., Cutini, S., D’Abrusco, R., D’Ammando, F., Angelis, A. de, Desiante, R., Digel, S. W., Venere, L. Di, Drell, P. S., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Ferrara, E. C., Finke, J., Focke, W. B., Franckowiak, A., Fuhrmann, L., Fukazawa, Y., Furniss, A. K., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Giglietto, N., Giommi, P., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Grove, J. E., Guiriec, S., Hewitt, J. W., Hill, A. B., Horan, D., Itoh, R., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, W. N., Kataoka, J., Kawano, T., Krauss, F., Kuss, M., Mura, G. La, Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Leto, C., Li, J., Li, L., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Madejski, G. M., Mayer, M., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Michelson, P. F., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nuss, E., Ohno, M., Ohsugi, T., Ojha, R., Omodei, N., Orienti, M., Orlando, E., Paggi, A., Paneque, D., Perkins, J. S., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Romani, R. W., Salvetti, D., Schaal, M., Schinzel, F. K., Schulz, A., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Sokolovsky, K. V., Spada, F., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Stawarz, L., Suson, D. J., Takahashi, H., Takahashi, T., Tanaka, Y., Thayer, J. G., Thayer, J. B., Tibaldo, L., Torres, D. F., Torresi, E., Tosti, G., Troja, E., Uchiyama, Y., Vianello, G., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., and Zimmer, S.. Tue . "The third catalog of active galactic nuclei detected by the Fermi large area telescope". United States. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/810/1/14. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1354914.
@article{osti_1354914,
title = {The third catalog of active galactic nuclei detected by the Fermi large area telescope},
author = {Ackermann, M. and Ajello, M. and Atwood, W. B. and Baldini, L. and Ballet, J. and Barbiellini, G. and Bastieri, D. and Gonzalez, J. Becerra and Bellazzini, R. and Bissaldi, E. and Blandford, R. D. and Bloom, E. D. and Bonino, R. and Bottacini, E. and Brandt, T. J. and Bregeon, J. and Britto, R. J. and Bruel, P. and Buehler, R. and Buson, S. and Caliandro, G. A. and Cameron, R. A. and Caragiulo, M. and Caraveo, P. A. and Carpenter, B. and Casandjian, J. M. and Cavazzuti, E. and Cecchi, C. and Charles, E. and Chekhtman, A. and Cheung, C. C. and Chiang, J. and Chiaro, G. and Ciprini, S. and Claus, R. and Cohen-Tanugi, J. and Cominsky, L. R. and Conrad, J. and Cutini, S. and D’Abrusco, R. and D’Ammando, F. and Angelis, A. de and Desiante, R. and Digel, S. W. and Venere, L. Di and Drell, P. S. and Favuzzi, C. and Fegan, S. J. and Ferrara, E. C. and Finke, J. and Focke, W. B. and Franckowiak, A. and Fuhrmann, L. and Fukazawa, Y. and Furniss, A. K. and Fusco, P. and Gargano, F. and Gasparrini, D. and Giglietto, N. and Giommi, P. and Giordano, F. and Giroletti, M. and Glanzman, T. and Godfrey, G. and Grenier, I. A. and Grove, J. E. and Guiriec, S. and Hewitt, J. W. and Hill, A. B. and Horan, D. and Itoh, R. and Jóhannesson, G. and Johnson, A. S. and Johnson, W. N. and Kataoka, J. and Kawano, T. and Krauss, F. and Kuss, M. and Mura, G. La and Larsson, S. and Latronico, L. and Leto, C. and Li, J. and Li, L. and Longo, F. and Loparco, F. and Lott, B. and Lovellette, M. N. and Lubrano, P. and Madejski, G. M. and Mayer, M. and Mazziotta, M. N. and McEnery, J. E. and Michelson, P. F. and Mizuno, T. and Moiseev, A. A. and Monzani, M. E. and Morselli, A. and Moskalenko, I. V. and Murgia, S. and Nuss, E. and Ohno, M. and Ohsugi, T. and Ojha, R. and Omodei, N. and Orienti, M. and Orlando, E. and Paggi, A. and Paneque, D. and Perkins, J. S. and Pesce-Rollins, M. and Piron, F. and Pivato, G. and Porter, T. A. and Rainò, S. and Rando, R. and Razzano, M. and Razzaque, S. and Reimer, A. and Reimer, O. and Romani, R. W. and Salvetti, D. and Schaal, M. and Schinzel, F. K. and Schulz, A. and Sgrò, C. and Siskind, E. J. and Sokolovsky, K. V. and Spada, F. and Spandre, G. and Spinelli, P. and Stawarz, L. and Suson, D. J. and Takahashi, H. and Takahashi, T. and Tanaka, Y. and Thayer, J. G. and Thayer, J. B. and Tibaldo, L. and Torres, D. F. and Torresi, E. and Tosti, G. and Troja, E. and Uchiyama, Y. and Vianello, G. and Winer, B. L. and Wood, K. S. and Zimmer, S.},
abstractNote = {We present the third catalog of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) detected by the Fermi-LAT (3LAC). It is based on the third Fermi-LAT catalog (3FGL) of sources detected between 100 MeV and 300 GeV with a Test Statistic greater than 25, between 2008 August 4 and 2012 July 31. The 3LAC includes 1591 AGNs located at high Galactic latitudes ($| b| \gt 10^\circ $), a 71% increase over the second catalog based on 2 years of data. There are 28 duplicate associations, thus 1563 of the 2192 high-latitude gamma-ray sources of the 3FGL catalog are AGNs. Most of them (98%) are blazars. About half of the newly detected blazars are of unknown type, i.e., they lack spectroscopic information of sufficient quality to determine the strength of their emission lines. Based on their gamma-ray spectral properties, these sources are evenly split between flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and BL Lacs. The most abundant detected BL Lacs are of the high-synchrotron-peaked (HSP) type. There were about 50% of the BL Lacs that had no measured redshifts. A few new rare outliers (HSP-FSRQs and high-luminosity HSP BL Lacs) are reported. The general properties of the 3LAC sample confirm previous findings from earlier catalogs. The fraction of 3LAC blazars in the total population of blazars listed in BZCAT remains non-negligible even at the faint ends of the BZCAT-blazar radio, optical, and X-ray flux distributions, which hints that even the faintest known blazars could eventually shine in gamma-rays at LAT-detection levels. Furthermore, the energy-flux distributions of the different blazar populations are in good agreement with extrapolation from earlier catalogs.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/810/1/14},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
number = 1,
volume = 810,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {8}
}

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Figures / Tables:

Fig. 1 Fig. 1: Point-source flux limit in units of ph cm−2 s−1 for $E$ > 100 MeV and photon spectral index $Γ$ = 2.2 as a function of sky location (in Galactic coordinates) for the 3LAC time interval.

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    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 457, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv2846

    Cross-correlation of weak lensing and gamma rays: implications for the nature of dark matter
    journal, February 2017

    • Tröster, Tilman; Camera, Stefano; Fornasa, Mattia
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 467, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx365

    Radiative signatures of plasmoid-dominated reconnection in blazar jets
    journal, October 2018

    • Christie, I. M.; Petropoulou, M.; Sironi, L.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 482, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty2636

    ALMA Band 3 polarimetric follow-up of a complete sample of faint PACO sources
    journal, July 2019

    • Galluzzi, V.; Puglisi, G.; Burkutean, S.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 489, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz1930

    Neutrino emission from BL Lac objects: the role of radiatively inefficient accretion flows
    journal, December 2018

    • Righi, C.; Tavecchio, F.; Inoue, S.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters, Vol. 483, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnrasl/sly231

    Interpretation of the Diffuse Astrophysical Neutrino Flux in Terms of the Blazar Sequence
    text, January 2019

    • Palladino, Andrea; Winter, Walter; Gao, Shan
    • Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Hamburg
    • DOI: 10.3204/pubdb-2019-00942

    Investigation of Two Fermi -LAT Gamma-Ray Blazars Coincident with High-energy Neutrinos Detected by IceCube
    text, January 2019

    • Garrappa, S.; Buson, S.; Franckowiak, A.
    • Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Hamburg
    • DOI: 10.3204/pubdb-2019-03715

    Fermi Large Area Telescope Fourth Source Catalog
    text, January 2020

    • Abdollahi, S.; Acero, F.; Ackermann, Markus
    • Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Hamburg
    • DOI: 10.3204/pubdb-2020-01400

    On the Connection of Radio and γ-Ray Emission in Blazars
    journal, December 2018

    • Boula, Stella; Petropoulou, Maria; Mastichiadis, Apostolos
    • Galaxies, Vol. 7, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3390/galaxies7010003

    SEARCHING FOR DARK MATTER ANNIHILATION IN RECENTLY DISCOVERED MILKY WAY SATELLITES WITH FERMI -LAT
    journal, January 2017


    An X-Ray Imaging Survey of Quasar Jets: The Complete Survey
    journal, March 2018

    • Marshall, H. L.; Gelbord, J. M.; Worrall, D. M.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 856, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aaaf66

    On the Multiwavelength Emission from CTA 102
    journal, August 2018

    • Gasparyan, S.; Sahakyan, N.; Baghmanyan, V.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 863, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aad234

    Missing Gamma-Ray Halos and the Need for New Physics in the Gamma-Ray Sky
    journal, November 2018

    • Broderick, Avery E.; Tiede, Paul; Chang, Philip
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 868, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aae5f2

    The Radio/Gamma Connection of Blazars from High to Low Radio Frequencies
    journal, December 2018


    The Properties of Parsec-scale Blazar Jets
    journal, January 2019


    MOJAVE. XVII. Jet Kinematics and Parent Population Properties of Relativistically Beamed Radio-loud Blazars
    journal, March 2019


    Characterizing the Gamma-Ray Variability of the Brightest Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars Observed with the Fermi LAT
    journal, May 2019

    • Meyer, Manuel; Scargle, Jeffrey D.; Blandford, Roger D.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 877, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab1651

    Ejection of Double Knots from the Radio Core of PKS 1510–089 during the Strong Gamma-Ray Flares in 2015
    journal, May 2019

    • Park, Jongho; Lee, Sang-Sung; Kim, Jae-Young
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 877, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab1b27

    Identifying TeV Source Candidates among Fermi -LAT Unclassified Blazars
    journal, December 2019


    MOJAVE. XV. VLBA 15 GHz Total Intensity and Polarization Maps of 437 Parsec-scale AGN Jets from 1996 to 2017
    journal, January 2018

    • Lister, M. L.; Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D.
    • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 234, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/aa9c44

    On the Jet Properties of γ -Ray-loud Active Galactic Nuclei
    journal, April 2018


    Radio-emitting narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies in the JVLA perspective
    journal, June 2018


    X-ray study of a sample of FR0 radio galaxies: unveiling the nature of the central engine
    journal, March 2018

    • Torresi, E.; Grandi, P.; Capetti, A.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 476, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty520

    3FHL: The Third Catalog of Hard Fermi -LAT Sources
    text, January 2017


    Multiwavelength follow-up of a rare IceCube neutrino multiplet
    text, January 2017

    • Aartsen, M. G.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.
    • Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Hamburg
    • DOI: 10.3204/pubdb-2017-12822

    Ultrahigh-energy Cosmic-Ray Interactions as the Origin of Very High-energy γ -Rays from BL Lacertae Objects
    journal, February 2020

    • Das, Saikat; Gupta, Nayantara; Razzaque, Soebur
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 889, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab6131