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Title: Using HAWC to discover invisible pulsars

Abstract

Observations by HAWC and Milagro have detected bright and spatially extended TeV gamma-ray sources surrounding the Geminga and Monogem pulsars. We argue that these observations, along with a substantial population of other extended TeV sources coincident with pulsar wind nebulae, constitute a new morphological class of spatially extended TeV halos. We show that HAWCs wide field-of-view unlocks an expansive parameter space of TeV halos not observable by atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. Under the assumption that Geminga and Monogem are typical middle-aged pulsars, we show that ten-year HAWC observations should eventually observe 37$$^{+17}_{-13}$$ middle-aged TeV halos that correspond to pulsars whose radio emission is not beamed towards Earth. Depending on the extrapolation of the TeV halo efficiency to young pulsars, HAWC could detect more than 100 TeV halos from mis-aligned pulsars. These pulsars have historically been difficult to detect with existing multiwavelength observations. TeV halos will constitute a significant fraction of all HAWC sources, allowing follow-up observations to efficiently find pulsar wind nebulae and thermal pulsar emission. Furthermore, the observation and subsequent multi-wavelength follow-up of TeV halos will have significant implications for our understanding of pulsar beam geometries, the evolution of PWN, the diffusion of cosmic-rays near energetic pulsars, and the contribution of pulsars to the cosmic-ray positron excess.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [3];  [1]
  1. The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)
  2. Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada)
  3. The Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)
  4. Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Joint Space-Science Institute, College Park, MD (United States)
  5. Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
OSTI Identifier:
1354871
Report Number(s):
FERMILAB-PUB-17-080-A; arXiv:1703.09704
Journal ID: ISSN 2470-0010; PRVDAQ; 1519943
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-07CH11359
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review D
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 96; Journal Issue: 10; Journal ID: ISSN 2470-0010
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; 72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS

Citation Formats

Linden, Tim, Auchettl, Katie, Bramante, Joseph, Cholis, Ilias, Fang, Ke, Hooper, Dan, Karwal, Tanvi, and Li, Shirley Weishi. Using HAWC to discover invisible pulsars. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.96.103016.
Linden, Tim, Auchettl, Katie, Bramante, Joseph, Cholis, Ilias, Fang, Ke, Hooper, Dan, Karwal, Tanvi, & Li, Shirley Weishi. Using HAWC to discover invisible pulsars. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.96.103016.
Linden, Tim, Auchettl, Katie, Bramante, Joseph, Cholis, Ilias, Fang, Ke, Hooper, Dan, Karwal, Tanvi, and Li, Shirley Weishi. Wed . "Using HAWC to discover invisible pulsars". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.96.103016. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1354871.
@article{osti_1354871,
title = {Using HAWC to discover invisible pulsars},
author = {Linden, Tim and Auchettl, Katie and Bramante, Joseph and Cholis, Ilias and Fang, Ke and Hooper, Dan and Karwal, Tanvi and Li, Shirley Weishi},
abstractNote = {Observations by HAWC and Milagro have detected bright and spatially extended TeV gamma-ray sources surrounding the Geminga and Monogem pulsars. We argue that these observations, along with a substantial population of other extended TeV sources coincident with pulsar wind nebulae, constitute a new morphological class of spatially extended TeV halos. We show that HAWCs wide field-of-view unlocks an expansive parameter space of TeV halos not observable by atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. Under the assumption that Geminga and Monogem are typical middle-aged pulsars, we show that ten-year HAWC observations should eventually observe 37$^{+17}_{-13}$ middle-aged TeV halos that correspond to pulsars whose radio emission is not beamed towards Earth. Depending on the extrapolation of the TeV halo efficiency to young pulsars, HAWC could detect more than 100 TeV halos from mis-aligned pulsars. These pulsars have historically been difficult to detect with existing multiwavelength observations. TeV halos will constitute a significant fraction of all HAWC sources, allowing follow-up observations to efficiently find pulsar wind nebulae and thermal pulsar emission. Furthermore, the observation and subsequent multi-wavelength follow-up of TeV halos will have significant implications for our understanding of pulsar beam geometries, the evolution of PWN, the diffusion of cosmic-rays near energetic pulsars, and the contribution of pulsars to the cosmic-ray positron excess.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.96.103016},
journal = {Physical Review D},
number = 10,
volume = 96,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {11}
}

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