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Title: Discovery of stationary operation of quiescent H-mode plasmas with net-zero neutral beam injection torque and high energy confinement on DIII-D [Discovery of stationary operation of quiescent H-mode plasmas with Net-Zero NBI torque and high energy confinement on DIII-D]

Abstract

Recent experiments in DIII-D [J. L. Luxon et al., Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research 1996 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1987), Vol. I, p. 159] have led to the discovery of a means of modifying edge turbulence to achieve stationary, high confinement operation without Edge Localized Mode (ELM) instabilities and with no net external torque input. Eliminating the ELM-induced heat bursts and controlling plasma stability at low rotation represent two of the great challenges for fusion energy. By exploiting edge turbulence in a novel manner, we achieved excellent tokamak performance, well above the H98y2 international tokamak energy confinement scaling (H98y2=1.25), thus meeting an additional confinement challenge that is usually difficult at low torque. The new regime is triggered in double null plasmas by ramping 2 the injected torque to zero and then maintaining it there. This lowers ExB rotation shear in the plasma edge, allowing low-k, broadband, electromagnetic turbulence to increase. In the H-mode edge, a narrow transport barrier usually grows until MHD instability (a peeling ballooning mode) leads to the ELM heat burst. However, the increased turbulence reduces the pressure gradient, allowing the development of a broader and thus higher transport barrier. A 60% increase in pedestalmore » pressure and 40% increase in energy confinement result. An increase in the ExB shearing rate inside of the edge pedestal is a key factor in the confinement increase. Strong double-null plasma shaping raises the threshold for the ELM instability, allowing the plasma to reach a transport-limited state near but below the explosive ELM stability boundary. The resulting plasmas have burning-plasma-relevant βN=1.6-1.8 and run without the need for extra torque from 3D magnetic fields. To date, stationary conditions have been produced for 2 s or 12 energy confinement times, limited only by external hardware constraints. Stationary operation with improved pedestal conditions is highly significant for future burning plasma devices, since operation without ELMs at low rotation and good confinement is key for fusion energy production.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [1];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [3];  [4];  [2]
  1. General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)
  2. Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
  3. Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
  4. Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1354775
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1241423; OSTI ID: 1373924
Grant/Contract Number:  
FC02-04ER54698; AC02-09CH11466; FG02-08ER54984; FG92-08ER54999
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physics of Plasmas
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 23; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 1070-664X
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY

Citation Formats

Burrell, Keith H., Barada, Kshitish, Chen, Xi, Garofalo, Andrea M., Groebner, Richard J., Muscatello, Christopher M., Osborne, Thomas H., Petty, Clinton C., Rhodes, Terry L., Snyder, Philip B., Solomon, W. M., Yan, Z., and Zeng, L.. Discovery of stationary operation of quiescent H-mode plasmas with net-zero neutral beam injection torque and high energy confinement on DIII-D [Discovery of stationary operation of quiescent H-mode plasmas with Net-Zero NBI torque and high energy confinement on DIII-D]. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4943521.
Burrell, Keith H., Barada, Kshitish, Chen, Xi, Garofalo, Andrea M., Groebner, Richard J., Muscatello, Christopher M., Osborne, Thomas H., Petty, Clinton C., Rhodes, Terry L., Snyder, Philip B., Solomon, W. M., Yan, Z., & Zeng, L.. Discovery of stationary operation of quiescent H-mode plasmas with net-zero neutral beam injection torque and high energy confinement on DIII-D [Discovery of stationary operation of quiescent H-mode plasmas with Net-Zero NBI torque and high energy confinement on DIII-D]. United States. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4943521
Burrell, Keith H., Barada, Kshitish, Chen, Xi, Garofalo, Andrea M., Groebner, Richard J., Muscatello, Christopher M., Osborne, Thomas H., Petty, Clinton C., Rhodes, Terry L., Snyder, Philip B., Solomon, W. M., Yan, Z., and Zeng, L.. Fri . "Discovery of stationary operation of quiescent H-mode plasmas with net-zero neutral beam injection torque and high energy confinement on DIII-D [Discovery of stationary operation of quiescent H-mode plasmas with Net-Zero NBI torque and high energy confinement on DIII-D]". United States. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4943521. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1354775.
@article{osti_1354775,
title = {Discovery of stationary operation of quiescent H-mode plasmas with net-zero neutral beam injection torque and high energy confinement on DIII-D [Discovery of stationary operation of quiescent H-mode plasmas with Net-Zero NBI torque and high energy confinement on DIII-D]},
author = {Burrell, Keith H. and Barada, Kshitish and Chen, Xi and Garofalo, Andrea M. and Groebner, Richard J. and Muscatello, Christopher M. and Osborne, Thomas H. and Petty, Clinton C. and Rhodes, Terry L. and Snyder, Philip B. and Solomon, W. M. and Yan, Z. and Zeng, L.},
abstractNote = {Recent experiments in DIII-D [J. L. Luxon et al., Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research 1996 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1987), Vol. I, p. 159] have led to the discovery of a means of modifying edge turbulence to achieve stationary, high confinement operation without Edge Localized Mode (ELM) instabilities and with no net external torque input. Eliminating the ELM-induced heat bursts and controlling plasma stability at low rotation represent two of the great challenges for fusion energy. By exploiting edge turbulence in a novel manner, we achieved excellent tokamak performance, well above the H98y2 international tokamak energy confinement scaling (H98y2=1.25), thus meeting an additional confinement challenge that is usually difficult at low torque. The new regime is triggered in double null plasmas by ramping 2 the injected torque to zero and then maintaining it there. This lowers ExB rotation shear in the plasma edge, allowing low-k, broadband, electromagnetic turbulence to increase. In the H-mode edge, a narrow transport barrier usually grows until MHD instability (a peeling ballooning mode) leads to the ELM heat burst. However, the increased turbulence reduces the pressure gradient, allowing the development of a broader and thus higher transport barrier. A 60% increase in pedestal pressure and 40% increase in energy confinement result. An increase in the ExB shearing rate inside of the edge pedestal is a key factor in the confinement increase. Strong double-null plasma shaping raises the threshold for the ELM instability, allowing the plasma to reach a transport-limited state near but below the explosive ELM stability boundary. The resulting plasmas have burning-plasma-relevant βN=1.6-1.8 and run without the need for extra torque from 3D magnetic fields. To date, stationary conditions have been produced for 2 s or 12 energy confinement times, limited only by external hardware constraints. Stationary operation with improved pedestal conditions is highly significant for future burning plasma devices, since operation without ELMs at low rotation and good confinement is key for fusion energy production.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4943521},
journal = {Physics of Plasmas},
number = 5,
volume = 23,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {3}
}

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Cited by: 11 works
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Response of impurity particle confinement time to external actuators in QH-mode plasmas on DIII-D
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Rotational shear effects on edge harmonic oscillations in DIII-D quiescent H-mode discharges
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    Works referencing / citing this record:

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    journal, May 2018

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    DIII-D research towards establishing the scientific basis for future fusion reactors
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    27th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference: summary of sessions EX/C, EX/S and PPC
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