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Title: Saturation of a Ce:Y 3Al 5O 12 scintillator response to ultra-short pulses of extreme ultraviolet soft X-ray and X-ray laser radiation

Investigations of radioluminescence saturation in monocrystalline cerium doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Ce:YAG) exposed to intense extreme ultraviolet (XUV), soft X-ray and X-ray radiation delivered from three free-electron lasers are described in this article. The measurements were performed with wavelengths of 98, 25.6, 13.5 and 0.15 nm. We have found that saturation of the photon yield occurs at an excitation level of 2.0 x 10 20 eV/cm 3 resulting in an emission of 1.5 x 10 18 visible photons per cubic centimeter. This number is much smaller than the concentration of Ce3+ in the scintillator that was equal to 2 x 10 20 cm –3. Because the internal radiance efficiency η does not depend strongly on the irradiating photon energy, i.e., η ≈0.035 ± 0.015 in the range 10 to 100 000 eV, the results presented here could be used to predict saturation effects in scintillator slabs placed in imaging systems of bright XUV, X-ray and particle beams. In conclusion, the saturation of the Ce 3+ emission is explained by mutual quenching of excitons created at high densities, preceding the stage of energy transfer to the Ce 3+ ions.
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [6] ;  [6] ;  [5] ;  [7] ;  [6] ;  [4]
  1. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  2. Univ. of Bialystok, Bialystok (Poland)
  3. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  4. Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic)
  5. Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland)
  6. Univ. of Tartu, Tartu (Estonia)
  7. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-76SF00515; IUT02-26; TK141; 14-29772S; AC52-07NA27344; LG15013; LH14072
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Optical Materials Express
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 7; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 2159-3930
Optical Society of America (OSA)
Research Org:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Country of Publication:
United States
43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; Fluorescent and luminescent materials; Luminescence; Free-electron lasers (FELs); UV, EUV, and X-ray lasers; Laser beam characterization; Radiometry
OSTI Identifier: