skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Electric Field Tuning Molecular Packing and Electrical Properties of Solution-Shearing Coated Organic Semiconducting Thin Films

Abstract

Recent improvements in solution-coated organic semiconductors (OSCs) evidence their high potential for cost-efficient organic electronics and sensors. Molecular packing structure determines the charge transport property of molecular solids. However, it remains challenging to control the molecular packing structure for a given OSC. Here, the application of alternating electric fields is reported to fine-tune the crystal packing of OSC solution-shearing coated at ambient conditions. First, a theoretical model based on dielectrophoresis is developed to guide the selection of the optimal conditions (frequency and amplitude) of the electric field applied through the solution-shearing blade during coating of OSC thin films. Next, electric field-induced polymorphism is demonstrated for OSCs with both herringbone and 2D brick-wall packing motifs in 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene and 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene, respectively. Favorable molecular packing can be accessible in some cases, resulting in higher charge carrier mobilities. In conclusion, this work provides a new approach to tune the properties of solution-coated OSCs in functional devices for high-performance printed electronics.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [1];  [2];  [1]
  1. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)
  2. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  3. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1353187
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1401739
Grant/Contract Number:  
P2ELP2_155355; SC0016523; FOA-0000654-1588; 1434799; AC02-76SF00515; DE‐SC0016523; DE‐FOA‐0000654‐1588
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Advanced Functional Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 27; Journal Issue: 8; Journal ID: ISSN 1616-301X
Publisher:
Wiley
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Molina-Lopez, Francisco, Yan, Hongping, Gu, Xiaodan, Kim, Yeongin, Toney, Michael F., and Bao, Zhenan. Electric Field Tuning Molecular Packing and Electrical Properties of Solution-Shearing Coated Organic Semiconducting Thin Films. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.201605503.
Molina-Lopez, Francisco, Yan, Hongping, Gu, Xiaodan, Kim, Yeongin, Toney, Michael F., & Bao, Zhenan. Electric Field Tuning Molecular Packing and Electrical Properties of Solution-Shearing Coated Organic Semiconducting Thin Films. United States. https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.201605503
Molina-Lopez, Francisco, Yan, Hongping, Gu, Xiaodan, Kim, Yeongin, Toney, Michael F., and Bao, Zhenan. Tue . "Electric Field Tuning Molecular Packing and Electrical Properties of Solution-Shearing Coated Organic Semiconducting Thin Films". United States. https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.201605503. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1353187.
@article{osti_1353187,
title = {Electric Field Tuning Molecular Packing and Electrical Properties of Solution-Shearing Coated Organic Semiconducting Thin Films},
author = {Molina-Lopez, Francisco and Yan, Hongping and Gu, Xiaodan and Kim, Yeongin and Toney, Michael F. and Bao, Zhenan},
abstractNote = {Recent improvements in solution-coated organic semiconductors (OSCs) evidence their high potential for cost-efficient organic electronics and sensors. Molecular packing structure determines the charge transport property of molecular solids. However, it remains challenging to control the molecular packing structure for a given OSC. Here, the application of alternating electric fields is reported to fine-tune the crystal packing of OSC solution-shearing coated at ambient conditions. First, a theoretical model based on dielectrophoresis is developed to guide the selection of the optimal conditions (frequency and amplitude) of the electric field applied through the solution-shearing blade during coating of OSC thin films. Next, electric field-induced polymorphism is demonstrated for OSCs with both herringbone and 2D brick-wall packing motifs in 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene and 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene, respectively. Favorable molecular packing can be accessible in some cases, resulting in higher charge carrier mobilities. In conclusion, this work provides a new approach to tune the properties of solution-coated OSCs in functional devices for high-performance printed electronics.},
doi = {10.1002/adfm.201605503},
journal = {Advanced Functional Materials},
number = 8,
volume = 27,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {1}
}

Works referenced in this record:

Dynamic character of charge transport parameters in disordered organic semiconductor field-effect transistors
journal, January 2012

  • Chen, Y.; Lee, B.; Yi, H. T.
  • Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 14, Issue 41
  • DOI: 10.1039/c2cp41823a

Patterning organic single-crystal transistor arrays
journal, December 2006

  • Briseno, Alejandro L.; Mannsfeld, Stefan C. B.; Ling, Mang M.
  • Nature, Vol. 444, Issue 7121, p. 913-917
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature05427

Mobility overestimation due to gated contacts in organic field-effect transistors
journal, March 2016

  • Bittle, Emily G.; Basham, James I.; Jackson, Thomas N.
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 7, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms10908

Large-Scale Assembly of Single Nanowires through Capillary-Assisted Dielectrophoresis
journal, November 2014

  • Collet, Maéva; Salomon, Sven; Klein, Naiara Yohanna
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 27, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201403039

Conducting AFM and 2D GIXD Studies on Pentacene Thin Films
journal, August 2005

  • Yang, Hoichang; Shin, Tae Joo; Ling, Mang-Mang
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 127, Issue 33
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja052478e

Electric-Field-Assisted Alignment of Supramolecular Fibers
journal, May 2006


Inkjet printing of single-crystal films
journal, July 2011

  • Minemawari, Hiromi; Yamada, Toshikazu; Matsui, Hiroyuki
  • Nature, Vol. 475, Issue 7356, p. 364-367
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature10313

Nanoscopic Templates from Oriented Block Copolymer Films
journal, June 2000


Crystallisation kinetics in thin films of dihexyl-terthiophene: the appearance of polymorphic phases
journal, January 2012

  • Wedl, Bernhard; Resel, Roland; Leising, Günther
  • RSC Advances, Vol. 2, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1039/c2ra20272g

Electric Field-Assisted Alignment of Self-Assembled Fibers Composed of Hydrogen-Bonded Molecules Having Laterally Fluorinated Mesogens
journal, May 2009

  • Yoshio, Masafumi; Shoji, Yoshiko; Tochigi, Yusuke
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 131, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja8093718

Current versus gate voltage hysteresis in organic field effect transistors
journal, April 2009

  • Egginger, Martin; Bauer, Siegfried; Schwödiauer, Reinhard
  • Monatshefte für Chemie - Chemical Monthly, Vol. 140, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1007/s00706-009-0149-z

Dibenzothiopheno[6,5- b :6′,5′- f ]thieno[3,2- b ]thiophene (DBTTT): High-Performance Small-Molecule Organic Semiconductor for Field-Effect Transistors
journal, April 2015

  • Park, Jeong-Il; Chung, Jong Won; Kim, Joo-Young
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 137, Issue 38
  • DOI: 10.1021/jacs.5b01108

Droplet Manipulation by an External Electric Field for Crystalline Film Growth
journal, July 2013

  • Komino, Takeshi; Kuwabara, Hirokazu; Ikeda, Masaaki
  • Langmuir, Vol. 29, Issue 30
  • DOI: 10.1021/la401729k

Review Article—Dielectrophoresis: Status of the theory, technology, and applications
journal, June 2010


Precise Structure of Pentacene Monolayers on Amorphous Silicon Oxide and Relation to Charge Transport
journal, June 2009

  • Mannsfeld, Stefan C. B.; Virkar, Ajay; Reese, Colin
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 21, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.200803328

From Convective Assembly to Landau−Levich Deposition of Multilayered Phospholipid Films of Controlled Thickness
journal, March 2009

  • Le Berre, Maël; Chen, Yong; Baigl, Damien
  • Langmuir, Vol. 25, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1021/la803646e

Molecular Ordering of High-Performance Soluble Molecular Semiconductors and Re-evaluation of Their Field-Effect Transistor Characteristics
journal, July 2008

  • Izawa, Takafumi; Miyazaki, Eigo; Takimiya, Kazuo
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 20, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.200800799

Thermally Induced Solid-State Phase Transition of Bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) Pentacene Crystals
journal, August 2006

  • Chen, Jihua; Anthony, John; Martin, David C.
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, Vol. 110, Issue 33, p. 16397-16403
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp0627877

A Zone-Casting Technique for Device Fabrication of Field-Effect Transistors Based on Discotic Hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene
journal, January 2005

  • Pisula, W.; Menon, A.; Stepputat, M.
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 17, Issue 6, p. 684-689
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.200401171

Understanding Polymorphism in Organic Semiconductor Thin Films through Nanoconfinement
journal, November 2014

  • Diao, Ying; Lenn, Kristina M.; Lee, Wen-Ya
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 136, Issue 49
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja507179d

Electric field induced instabilities at liquid/liquid interfaces
journal, February 2001

  • Lin, Zhiqun; Kerle, Tobias; Baker, Shenda M.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 114, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1338125

On the Extraction of Charge Carrier Mobility in High-Mobility Organic Transistors
journal, November 2015

  • Uemura, Takafumi; Rolin, Cedric; Ke, Tung-Huei
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 28, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503133

Alignment of photoconductive self-assembled fibers composed of π-conjugated molecules under electric fields
journal, January 2010

  • Shoji, Yoshiko; Yoshio, Masafumi; Yasuda, Takuma
  • J. Mater. Chem., Vol. 20, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1039/B915822G

Simulating X-ray diffraction of textured films
journal, March 2008

  • Breiby, Dag W.; Bunk, Oliver; Andreasen, Jens W.
  • Journal of Applied Crystallography, Vol. 41, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1107/S0021889808001064

Electric field-assisted self-organization of polymer:fullerene hybrids on the photovoltaic performance
journal, January 2011

  • Lin, Chih-Cheng; Lin, Yun-Yue; Li, Shao-Sian
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 4, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1039/c1ee01183a

Electric-field-induced orientation control of organic semiconductor rubrene crystals
journal, January 2013


Controlling Polymorphic Transformations of Pentacene Crystal through Solvent Treatments: An Experimental and Theoretical Study
journal, October 2010

  • Cheng, Horng-Long; Lin, Jr-Wei
  • Crystal Growth & Design, Vol. 10, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1021/cg100760t

Field-Force Alignment of Disc-Type π Systems
journal, March 2007

  • Cristadoro, Anna; Lieser, Günter; Räder, Hans Joachim
  • ChemPhysChem, Vol. 8, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1002/cphc.200600612

Controlled Deposition of Highly Ordered Soluble Acene Thin Films: Effect of Morphology and Crystal Orientation on Transistor Performance
journal, September 2009

  • Sele, Christoph W.; Kjellander, B. K. Charlotte; Niesen, Bjoern
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 21, Issue 48, p. 4926-4931
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.200901548

Crystallization of proteins under an external electric field
journal, April 1999


The Role of OTS Density on Pentacene and C 60 Nucleation, Thin Film Growth, and Transistor Performance
journal, June 2009

  • Virkar, Ajay; Mannsfeld, Stefan; Oh, Joon Hak
  • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 19, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200801727

Tuning charge transport in solution-sheared organic semiconductors using lattice strain
journal, December 2011

  • Giri, Gaurav; Verploegen, Eric; Mannsfeld, Stefan C. B.
  • Nature, Vol. 480, Issue 7378, p. 504-508
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature10683

High-Performance Transistors and Complementary Inverters Based on Solution-Grown Aligned Organic Single-Crystals
journal, March 2012

  • Li, Hanying; Tee, Benjamin C.-K.; Giri, Gaurav
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 24, Issue 19, p. 2588-2591
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200151

Interfacial Energy Effects on the Electric Field Alignment of Symmetric Diblock Copolymers
journal, August 2003

  • Xu, Ting; Hawker, Craig J.; Russell, Thomas P.
  • Macromolecules, Vol. 36, Issue 16, p. 6178-6182
  • DOI: 10.1021/ma034511s

Hierarchical structure formation and pattern replication induced by an electric field
journal, December 2002

  • Morariu, Mihai D.; Voicu, Nicoleta E.; Schäffer, Erik
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 2, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat789

Electric-Field-Assisted Position and Orientation Control of Organic Single Crystals
journal, November 2014

  • Kotsuki, Kenji; Obata, Seiji; Saiki, Koichiro
  • Langmuir, Vol. 30, Issue 47
  • DOI: 10.1021/la503286y

Tunable Crystal Nanostructures of Pentacene Thin Films on Gate Dielectrics Possessing Surface-Order Control
journal, April 2008

  • Kim, Do Hwan; Lee, Hwa Sung; Yang, Hoichang
  • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 18, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200701019

Thickness-Dependent Structural Evolutions and Growth Models in Relation to Carrier Transport Properties in Polycrystalline Pentacene Thin Films
journal, October 2007

  • Cheng, H. -L.; Mai, Y. -S.; Chou, W. -Y.
  • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 17, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700207

Solution coating of large-area organic semiconductor thin films with aligned single-crystalline domains
journal, June 2013

  • Diao, Ying; Tee, Benjamin C-K.; Giri, Gaurav
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 12, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat3650

One-dimensional self-confinement promotes polymorph selection in large-area organic semiconductor thin films
journal, April 2014

  • Giri, Gaurav; Li, Ruipeng; Smilgies, Detlef-M
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 5, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms4573

Self-Aligned Growth of Organic Semiconductor Single Crystals by Electric Field
journal, January 2016


Integrated Materials Design of Organic Semiconductors for Field-Effect Transistors
journal, April 2013

  • Mei, Jianguo; Diao, Ying; Appleton, Anthony L.
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 135, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja400881n

Ultra-high mobility transparent organic thin film transistors grown by an off-centre spin-coating method
journal, January 2014

  • Yuan, Yongbo; Giri, Gaurav; Ayzner, Alexander L.
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 5, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms4005

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Micro-Layer and Lattice Structure Effects on Impedance of Titanium Oxide Phthalocyanine
    journal, April 2018

    • Lam, Tu-Ngoc; Huang, Wei-Jie; Wang, Chun-Chieh
    • Advanced Engineering Materials, Vol. 20, Issue 7
    • DOI: 10.1002/adem.201701140

    Highly Crystalline C8-BTBT Thin-Film Transistors by Lateral Homo-Epitaxial Growth on Printed Templates
    journal, October 2017

    • Janneck, Robby; Pilet, Nicolas; Bommanaboyena, Satya Prakash
    • Advanced Materials, Vol. 29, Issue 44
    • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201703864

    Addition of the Lewis Acid Zn(C 6 F 5 ) 2 Enables Organic Transistors with a Maximum Hole Mobility in Excess of 20 cm 2 V −1 s −1
    journal, May 2019

    • Paterson, Alexandra F.; Tsetseris, Leonidas; Li, Ruipeng
    • Advanced Materials, Vol. 31, Issue 27
    • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201900871

    High-Mobility, Solution-Processed Organic Field-Effect Transistors from C8-BTBT:Polystyrene Blends
    journal, June 2018

    • Haase, Katherina; Teixeira da Rocha, Cecilia; Hauenstein, Christoph
    • Advanced Electronic Materials, Vol. 4, Issue 8
    • DOI: 10.1002/aelm.201800076

    Enhancing Molecular Alignment and Charge Transport of Solution-Sheared Semiconducting Polymer Films by the Electrical-Blade Effect
    journal, May 2018

    • Molina-Lopez, Francisco; Wu, Hung-Chin; Wang, Ging-Ji Nathan
    • Advanced Electronic Materials, Vol. 4, Issue 7
    • DOI: 10.1002/aelm.201800110

    Solution Shearing of a High‐Capacitance Polymer Dielectric for Low‐Voltage Organic Transistors
    journal, April 2019

    • Haase, Katherina; Zessin, Jakob; Zoumboulis, Konstantinos
    • Advanced Electronic Materials, Vol. 5, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1002/aelm.201900067

    Gas Sensors Based on Nano/Microstructured Organic Field‐Effect Transistors
    journal, February 2019


    The meniscus-guided deposition of semiconducting polymers
    journal, February 2018


    Organic crystalline materials in flexible electronics
    journal, January 2019

    • Wang, Yu; Sun, Lingjie; Wang, Cong
    • Chemical Society Reviews, Vol. 48, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1039/c8cs00406d

    Laser-induced orientation transformation of a conjugated polymer thin film with enhanced vertical charge transport
    journal, January 2018

    • Chae, Sangmin; Yi, Ahra; Lee, Hyun Hwi
    • Journal of Materials Chemistry C, Vol. 6, Issue 35
    • DOI: 10.1039/c8tc02393j