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Title: Shapes of rotating superfluid helium nanodroplets

Rotating superfluid He droplets of approximately 1 μm in diameter were obtained in a free nozzle beam expansion of liquid He in vacuum and were studied by single-shot coherent diffractive imaging using an x-ray free electron laser. The formation of strongly deformed droplets is evidenced by large anisotropies and intensity anomalies (streaks) in the obtained diffraction images. The analysis of the images shows that in addition to previously described axially symmetric oblate shapes, some droplets exhibit prolate shapes. Forward modeling of the diffraction images indicates that the shapes of rotating superfluid droplets are very similar to their classical counterparts, giving direct access to the droplet angular momenta and angular velocities. Here, the analyses of the radial intensity distribution and appearance statistics of the anisotropic images confirm the existence of oblate metastable superfluid droplets with large angular momenta beyond the classical bifurcation threshold.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [6] ;  [7] ;  [8] ;  [9] ;  [5] ;  [10] ;  [11] ;  [12] ;  [13] ;  [5] ;  [3] ;  [14] ;  [1]
  1. Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
  2. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  3. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States)
  4. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)
  5. Technical Univ. of Berlin, Berlin (Germany)
  6. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Vescent Photonics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States)
  7. Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); IPG Photonics, Santa Clara, CA (United States)
  8. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Aarhus Univ., Aarhus (Denmark)
  9. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Technical Univ. of Berlin, Berlin (Germany)
  10. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  11. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); California Lutheran Univ., Thousand Oaks, CA (United States)
  12. USC, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States)
  13. Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)
  14. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
DMR-1501276; CHE-1362535; AC02-05CH11231; AC02-06CH11357; LA1214; AC02-76SF00515
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review B
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 95; Journal Issue: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 2469-9950
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Research Org:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY
OSTI Identifier:
1353180
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1344133