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Title: Molecular dynamics and charge transport in organic semiconductors: a classical approach to modeling electron transfer

Abstract

Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are a promising carbon-neutral energy conversion technology, with recent improvements pushing power conversion efficiencies over 10%. A major factor limiting OPV performance is inefficiency of charge transport in organic semiconducting materials (OSCs). Due to strong coupling with lattice degrees of freedom, the charges form polarons, localized quasi-particles comprised of charges dressed with phonons. These polarons can be conceptualized as pseudo-atoms with a greater effective mass than a bare charge. We propose that due to this increased mass, polarons can be modeled with Langevin molecular dynamics (LMD), a classical approach with a computational cost much lower than most quantum mechanical methods. Here we present LMD simulations of charge transfer between a pair of fullerene molecules, which commonly serve as electron acceptors in OSCs. We find transfer rates consistent with experimental measurements of charge mobility, suggesting that this method may provide quantitative predictions of efficiency when used to simulate materials on the device scale. Our approach also offers information that is not captured in the overall transfer rate or mobility: in the simulation data, we observe exactly when and why intermolecular transfer events occur. In addition, we demonstrate that these simulations can shed light on the properties of polaronsmore » in OSCs. Much remains to be learned about these quasi-particles, and there are no widely accepted methods for calculating properties such as effective mass and friction. In conclusion, our model offers a promising approach to exploring mass and friction as well as providing insight into the details of polaron transport in OSCs.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6]; ORCiD logo [4]
  1. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States)
  2. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  3. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States)
  4. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States); Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)
  5. Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
  6. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); National Science Foundation (NSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1353009
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1340928; OSTI ID: 1352608
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-2C00-68402; LA-UR-16-22738
Journal ID: ISSN 2041-6520; CSHCBM
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308; AC52-06NA25396; AC02-06CH11357; CHE-1464804
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Chemical Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 8; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-6520
Publisher:
Royal Society of Chemistry
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; organic photovoltaics; charge transport; organic semiconducting materials; Langevin molecular dynamics; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; Material Science

Citation Formats

Pelzer, Kenley M., Vázquez-Mayagoitia, Álvaro, Ratcliff, Laura E., Tretiak, Sergei, Bair, Raymond A., Gray, Stephen K., Van Voorhis, Troy, Larsen, Ross E., and Darling, Seth B. Molecular dynamics and charge transport in organic semiconductors: a classical approach to modeling electron transfer. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1039/c6sc04547b.
Pelzer, Kenley M., Vázquez-Mayagoitia, Álvaro, Ratcliff, Laura E., Tretiak, Sergei, Bair, Raymond A., Gray, Stephen K., Van Voorhis, Troy, Larsen, Ross E., & Darling, Seth B. Molecular dynamics and charge transport in organic semiconductors: a classical approach to modeling electron transfer. United States. doi:10.1039/c6sc04547b.
Pelzer, Kenley M., Vázquez-Mayagoitia, Álvaro, Ratcliff, Laura E., Tretiak, Sergei, Bair, Raymond A., Gray, Stephen K., Van Voorhis, Troy, Larsen, Ross E., and Darling, Seth B. Wed . "Molecular dynamics and charge transport in organic semiconductors: a classical approach to modeling electron transfer". United States. doi:10.1039/c6sc04547b. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1353009.
@article{osti_1353009,
title = {Molecular dynamics and charge transport in organic semiconductors: a classical approach to modeling electron transfer},
author = {Pelzer, Kenley M. and Vázquez-Mayagoitia, Álvaro and Ratcliff, Laura E. and Tretiak, Sergei and Bair, Raymond A. and Gray, Stephen K. and Van Voorhis, Troy and Larsen, Ross E. and Darling, Seth B.},
abstractNote = {Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are a promising carbon-neutral energy conversion technology, with recent improvements pushing power conversion efficiencies over 10%. A major factor limiting OPV performance is inefficiency of charge transport in organic semiconducting materials (OSCs). Due to strong coupling with lattice degrees of freedom, the charges form polarons, localized quasi-particles comprised of charges dressed with phonons. These polarons can be conceptualized as pseudo-atoms with a greater effective mass than a bare charge. We propose that due to this increased mass, polarons can be modeled with Langevin molecular dynamics (LMD), a classical approach with a computational cost much lower than most quantum mechanical methods. Here we present LMD simulations of charge transfer between a pair of fullerene molecules, which commonly serve as electron acceptors in OSCs. We find transfer rates consistent with experimental measurements of charge mobility, suggesting that this method may provide quantitative predictions of efficiency when used to simulate materials on the device scale. Our approach also offers information that is not captured in the overall transfer rate or mobility: in the simulation data, we observe exactly when and why intermolecular transfer events occur. In addition, we demonstrate that these simulations can shed light on the properties of polarons in OSCs. Much remains to be learned about these quasi-particles, and there are no widely accepted methods for calculating properties such as effective mass and friction. In conclusion, our model offers a promising approach to exploring mass and friction as well as providing insight into the details of polaron transport in OSCs.},
doi = {10.1039/c6sc04547b},
journal = {Chemical Science},
number = 4,
volume = 8,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {1}
}

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