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Title: A sodium–aluminum hybrid battery

Abstract

We present novel hybrid batteries that are fabricated using an aluminum anode, a sodium intercalation cathode Na3V2(PO4)3 (NVP), and a sodium/aluminum dual salt electrolyte based on NaAlCl4 and an eutectic mixture of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMImC) and aluminum chloride. Cyclic voltammograms indicate that increasing the molar concentration of AlCl3 in the electrolyte is beneficial to high coulombic efficiency of aluminum deposition/stripping, which, unfortunately, results in lower coulombic efficiency of sodium extraction/insertion in the cathode. Therefore, EMImC–AlCl3 with a molar ratio of 1–1.1 is used for battery evaluation. The hybrid battery with 1.0 M NaAlCl4 exhibits a discharge voltage of 1.25 V and a cathodic capacity of 99 mA h g-1 at a current rate of C/10. In addition, the hybrid battery exhibits good rate performance and long-term cycling stability while maintaining a high coulombic efficiency of 98%. It is also demonstrated that increasing salt concentration can further enhance the cycling performance of the hybrid battery. X-ray diffraction analysis of the NVP electrodes under different conditions confirms that the main cathode reaction is indeed Na extraction/insertion. Based on all earth-abundant elements, the new Na–Al hybrid battery is very attractive for stationary and grid energy storage applications.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [3];  [1];  [4];  [2];  [5]; ORCiD logo [6]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical Sciences Division
  2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory for Renewable Energy, Beijing Key Laboratory for New Energy Materials and Devices, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Physical Sciences
  3. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical Sciences Division; Northeast Normal University (China). Department of Chemistry
  4. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical Sciences Division ; Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Department of Chemistry
  5. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division
  6. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical Sciences Division ; Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Department of Chemistry
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1352758
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Materials Chemistry. A
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 5; Journal Issue: 14; Journal ID: ISSN 2050-7488
Publisher:
Royal Society of Chemistry
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 25 ENERGY STORAGE

Citation Formats

Sun, Xiao-Guang, Zhang, Zhizhen, Guan, Hong Yu, Bridges, Craig A., Fang, Youxing, Hu, Yong-Sheng, Veith, Gabriel M., and Dai, Sheng. A sodium–aluminum hybrid battery. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1039/C7TA00191F.
Sun, Xiao-Guang, Zhang, Zhizhen, Guan, Hong Yu, Bridges, Craig A., Fang, Youxing, Hu, Yong-Sheng, Veith, Gabriel M., & Dai, Sheng. A sodium–aluminum hybrid battery. United States. doi:10.1039/C7TA00191F.
Sun, Xiao-Guang, Zhang, Zhizhen, Guan, Hong Yu, Bridges, Craig A., Fang, Youxing, Hu, Yong-Sheng, Veith, Gabriel M., and Dai, Sheng. Tue . "A sodium–aluminum hybrid battery". United States. doi:10.1039/C7TA00191F. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1352758.
@article{osti_1352758,
title = {A sodium–aluminum hybrid battery},
author = {Sun, Xiao-Guang and Zhang, Zhizhen and Guan, Hong Yu and Bridges, Craig A. and Fang, Youxing and Hu, Yong-Sheng and Veith, Gabriel M. and Dai, Sheng},
abstractNote = {We present novel hybrid batteries that are fabricated using an aluminum anode, a sodium intercalation cathode Na3V2(PO4)3 (NVP), and a sodium/aluminum dual salt electrolyte based on NaAlCl4 and an eutectic mixture of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMImC) and aluminum chloride. Cyclic voltammograms indicate that increasing the molar concentration of AlCl3 in the electrolyte is beneficial to high coulombic efficiency of aluminum deposition/stripping, which, unfortunately, results in lower coulombic efficiency of sodium extraction/insertion in the cathode. Therefore, EMImC–AlCl3 with a molar ratio of 1–1.1 is used for battery evaluation. The hybrid battery with 1.0 M NaAlCl4 exhibits a discharge voltage of 1.25 V and a cathodic capacity of 99 mA h g-1 at a current rate of C/10. In addition, the hybrid battery exhibits good rate performance and long-term cycling stability while maintaining a high coulombic efficiency of 98%. It is also demonstrated that increasing salt concentration can further enhance the cycling performance of the hybrid battery. X-ray diffraction analysis of the NVP electrodes under different conditions confirms that the main cathode reaction is indeed Na extraction/insertion. Based on all earth-abundant elements, the new Na–Al hybrid battery is very attractive for stationary and grid energy storage applications.},
doi = {10.1039/C7TA00191F},
journal = {Journal of Materials Chemistry. A},
number = 14,
volume = 5,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {3}
}

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