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Title: Re-entrant relaxor ferroelectricity of methylammonium lead iodide

In this paper, we have performed a piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) study on methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI 3) thin films in normal (non-resonance, non-band-excitation) contact mode. In contrast to the ferroelectric Pb 0.76Ca 0.24TiO 3 (PCT) control sample, a typical ferroelectric response was not observed. However, a nonlinear electric field dependence of the local PFM amplitude was found in MAPbI 3, similar to PCT. An analysis combining results on structure, dielectric dispersion, and weak ferroelectricity demonstrates that MAPbI 3 is actually a re-entrant relaxor ferroelectric which, upon cooling, enters into a relaxor phase below its ferroelectric phase transition at ~327 K, due to the balance between the long range ferroelectric order and structural methylammonium group orientational disorder. The ferroelectricity at room temperature is compromised due to the re-entrant relaxor behavior, causing the poor polarization retention or weak ferroelectricity. Finally, our findings essentially conciliate the conflicting experimental results on MAPbI 3's ferroelectricity and are beneficial both for basic understanding as well as for device applications.
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [3]
  1. Qingdao Huanghai Univ., Qingdao (China). College of Electromechanical Engineering; Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of Semiconductors. Key Lab. of Semiconductor Materials Science
  2. Qingdao Huanghai Univ., Qingdao (China). College of Electromechanical Engineering
  3. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Materials Science Division; Korea Advanced Inst. Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-06CH11357; T23-407/13-N; AoE/P-03/08
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Current Applied Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 16; Journal Issue: 12; Journal ID: ISSN 1567-1739
Korean Physical Society
Research Org:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Qingdao Huanghai Univ., Qingdao (China)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); Research Grants Council (RGC) of Hong Kong (China); Chinese Univ. of Hong Kong (China)
Contributing Orgs:
Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China); Korea Advanced Inst. Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
Country of Publication:
United States
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; Atomic force microscopy; Electronic materials; Ferroelectrics; Piezoresponse force microscopy; Relaxor
OSTI Identifier:
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1358871