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Title: Effects of environment forcing on marine boundary layer cloud-drizzle processes: MBL Cloud-Drizzle Processes

Determining the factors affecting drizzle formation in marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds remains a challenge for both observation and modeling communities. To investigate the roles of vertical wind shear and buoyancy (static instability) in drizzle formation, ground-based observations from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program at the Azores are analyzed for two types of conditions. The type I clouds should last for at least five hours and more than 90% time must be non-drizzling, and then followed by at least two hours of drizzling periods while the type II clouds are characterized by mesoscale convection cellular (MCC) structures with drizzle occur every two to four hours. By analyzing the boundary layer wind profiles (direction and speed), it was found that either directional or speed shear is required to promote drizzle production in the type I clouds. Observations and a recent model study both suggest that vertical wind shear helps the production of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), stimulates turbulence within cloud layer, and enhances drizzle formation near the cloud top. The type II clouds do not require strong wind shear to produce drizzle. The small values of lower-tropospheric stability (LTS) and negative Richardson number ( Ri) in the type II casesmore » suggest that boundary layer instability plays an important role in TKE production and cloud-drizzle processes. As a result, by analyzing the relationships between LTS and wind shear for all cases and all time periods, a stronger connection was found between LTS and wind directional shear than that between LTS and wind speed shear.« less
Authors:
 [1] ; ORCiD logo [1] ; ORCiD logo [2] ; ORCiD logo [3] ;  [4] ; ORCiD logo [5]
  1. Department of Hydrology and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson Arizona USA
  2. Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks North Dakota USA
  3. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton New York USA
  4. Science Systems, and Applications, Inc., Hampton Virginia USA
  5. NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton Virginia USA
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
BNL-113765-2017-JA
Journal ID: ISSN 2169-897X; R&D Project: 2016-BNL-EE630EECA-Budg; KP1701000
Grant/Contract Number:
SC00112704
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 122; Journal Issue: 8; Journal ID: ISSN 2169-897X
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Research Org:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; drizzle formation; vertical wind shear; boundary layer static instability
OSTI Identifier:
1351748