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Title: The Future of Low-Carbon Electricity

Here, we review future global demand for electricity and major technologies positioned to supply itwith minimal greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions: renewables (wind, solar, water, geothermal and biomass), nuclear fission, and fossil power with CO 2 capture and sequestration. Two breakthrough technologies (space solar power and nuclear fusion) are discussed as exciting but uncertain additional options for low net GHG emissions (“low-carbon”) electricity generation. Grid integration technologies (monitoring and forecasting of transmission and distribution systems, demand-side load management, energy storage, and load balancing with low-carbon fuel substitutes) are also discussed. For each topic, recent historical trends and future prospects are reviewed, along with technical challenges, costs and other issues as appropriate. While no technology represents an ideal solution, their strengths can be enhanced by deployment in combination, along with grid integration that forms a critical set of enabling technologies to assure a reliable and robust future low-carbon electricity system.
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [1] ;  [5]
  1. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  2. Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)
  3. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  4. Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
  5. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 1543-5938; ir:1007260
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Annual Review of Environment and Resources
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 42; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1543-5938
Annual Reviews
Research Org:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
Country of Publication:
United States
32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; low-carbon electricity; renewable; nuclear; CO2; capture and sequestration; grid integration; breakthrough technology
OSTI Identifier: