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Title: Occurrence, leaching, and degradation of Cry1Ab protein from transgenic maize detritus in agricultural streams

The insecticidal Cry1Ab protein expressed by transgenic (Bt) maize can enter adjacent water bodies via multiple pathways, but its fate in stream ecosystems is not as well studied as in terrestrial systems. In this study, we used a combination of field sampling and laboratory experiments to examine the occurrence, leaching, and degradation of soluble Cry1Ab protein derived from Bt maize in agricultural streams. We surveyed 11 agricultural streams in northwestern Indiana, USA, on 6 dates that encompassed the growing season, crop harvest, and snowmelt/spring flooding, and detected Cry1Ab protein in the water column and in flowing subsurface tile drains at concentrations of 3–60 ng/L. In a series of laboratory experiments, submerged Bt maize leaves leached Cry1Ab into stream water with 1% of the protein remaining in leaves after 70 d. Laboratory experiments suggested that dissolved Cry1Ab protein degraded rapidly in microcosms containing water-column microorganisms, and light did not enhance breakdown by stimulating assimilatory uptake of the protein by autotrophs. Here, the common detection of Cry1Ab protein in streams sampled across an agricultural landscape, combined with laboratory studies showing rapid leaching and degradation, suggests that Cry1Ab may be pseudo-persistent at the watershed scale due to the multiple input pathways from themore » surrounding terrestrial environment.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [5] ;  [6]
  1. Univ. of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN (United States)
  2. Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)
  3. Loyola Univ. Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)
  4. (United States)
  5. (Canada)
  6. Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Science of the Total Environment
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 592; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0048-9697
Publisher:
Elsevier
Research Org:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; 60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; genetically engineered crops; corn; Bacillus thuringiensis; agriculture; lotic; pseudo-persistent
OSTI Identifier:
1350930

Griffiths, Natalie A., Tank, Jennifer L., Royer, Todd V., Rosi, Emma J., Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, NY, Shogren, Arial J., Frauendorf, Therese C., Univ. of Victoria, Victoria, BC, and Whiles, Matt R.. Occurrence, leaching, and degradation of Cry1Ab protein from transgenic maize detritus in agricultural streams. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.03.065.
Griffiths, Natalie A., Tank, Jennifer L., Royer, Todd V., Rosi, Emma J., Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, NY, Shogren, Arial J., Frauendorf, Therese C., Univ. of Victoria, Victoria, BC, & Whiles, Matt R.. Occurrence, leaching, and degradation of Cry1Ab protein from transgenic maize detritus in agricultural streams. United States. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.03.065.
Griffiths, Natalie A., Tank, Jennifer L., Royer, Todd V., Rosi, Emma J., Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, NY, Shogren, Arial J., Frauendorf, Therese C., Univ. of Victoria, Victoria, BC, and Whiles, Matt R.. 2017. "Occurrence, leaching, and degradation of Cry1Ab protein from transgenic maize detritus in agricultural streams". United States. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.03.065. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1350930.
@article{osti_1350930,
title = {Occurrence, leaching, and degradation of Cry1Ab protein from transgenic maize detritus in agricultural streams},
author = {Griffiths, Natalie A. and Tank, Jennifer L. and Royer, Todd V. and Rosi, Emma J. and Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, NY and Shogren, Arial J. and Frauendorf, Therese C. and Univ. of Victoria, Victoria, BC and Whiles, Matt R.},
abstractNote = {The insecticidal Cry1Ab protein expressed by transgenic (Bt) maize can enter adjacent water bodies via multiple pathways, but its fate in stream ecosystems is not as well studied as in terrestrial systems. In this study, we used a combination of field sampling and laboratory experiments to examine the occurrence, leaching, and degradation of soluble Cry1Ab protein derived from Bt maize in agricultural streams. We surveyed 11 agricultural streams in northwestern Indiana, USA, on 6 dates that encompassed the growing season, crop harvest, and snowmelt/spring flooding, and detected Cry1Ab protein in the water column and in flowing subsurface tile drains at concentrations of 3–60 ng/L. In a series of laboratory experiments, submerged Bt maize leaves leached Cry1Ab into stream water with 1% of the protein remaining in leaves after 70 d. Laboratory experiments suggested that dissolved Cry1Ab protein degraded rapidly in microcosms containing water-column microorganisms, and light did not enhance breakdown by stimulating assimilatory uptake of the protein by autotrophs. Here, the common detection of Cry1Ab protein in streams sampled across an agricultural landscape, combined with laboratory studies showing rapid leaching and degradation, suggests that Cry1Ab may be pseudo-persistent at the watershed scale due to the multiple input pathways from the surrounding terrestrial environment.},
doi = {10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.03.065},
journal = {Science of the Total Environment},
number = C,
volume = 592,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {3}
}