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Title: Processing-Structure-Property Relationships for Lignin-Based Carbonaceous Materials Used in Energy-Storage Applications

Lignin, an abundant organic polymer and a byproduct of pulp and biofuel production, has potential applications owing to its high carbon content and aromatic structure. Processing structure relationships are difficult to predict because of the heterogeneity of lignin. Here, this work discusses the roles of unit operations in the carbonization process of softwood lignin, and their resulting impacts on the material structure and electrochemical properties in application as the anode in lithium-ion cells. The processing variables include the lignin source, temperature, and duration of thermal stabilization, pyrolysis, and reduction. Materials are characterized at the atomic and microscales. High-temperature carbonization, at 2000 °C, produces larger graphitic domains than at 1050 °C, but results in a reduced capacity. Coulombic efficiencies over 98 % are achieved for extended galvanostatic cycling. Consequently, a properly designed carbonization process for lignin is well suited for the generation of low-cost, high-efficiency electrodes.
 [1] ;  [2] ; ORCiD logo [3] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [1] ;  [4] ; ORCiD logo [5]
  1. Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
  2. Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Bredesen Center for Interdisciplinary Research and Graduate Education
  3. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Energy & Transportation Science Division
  4. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science & Technology Division
  5. Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Renewable Carbon
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725; 2013–67021-21178; 4000140640
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Energy Technology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 2194-4288
Research Org:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Transportation Research Center (NTRC); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V); US Department of Agriculture (USDA)
Country of Publication:
United States
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 25 ENERGY STORAGE; anodes; carbon; electrochemistry; lignin; lithium
OSTI Identifier:
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1374756