skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Perovskite ink with wide processing window for scalable high-efficiency solar cells

Abstract

Perovskite solar cells have made tremendous progress using laboratory-scale spin-coating methods in the past few years owing to advances in controls of perovskite film deposition. However, devices made via scalable methods are still lagging behind state-of-the-art spin-coated devices because of the complicated nature of perovskite crystallization from a precursor state. Here we demonstrate a chlorine-containing methylammonium lead iodide precursor formulation along with solvent tuning to enable a wide precursor-processing window (up to ~8 min) and a rapid grain growth rate (as short as ~1 min). Coupled with antisolvent extraction, this precursor ink delivers high-quality perovskite films with large-scale uniformity. The ink can be used by both spin-coating and blade-coating methods with indistinguishable film morphology and device performance. Using a blade-coated absorber, devices with 0.12-cm2 and 1.2-cm2 areas yield average efficiencies of 18.55% and 17.33%, respectively. As a result, we further demonstrate a 12.6-cm2 four-cell module (88% geometric fill factor) with 13.3% stabilized active-area efficiency output.

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  2. The Univ. of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Solar Energy Technologies Office (EE-4S)
OSTI Identifier:
1349021
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5900-67357
Journal ID: ISSN 2058-7546
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Energy
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 2058-7546
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; perovskites; solar cells; precursor ink

Citation Formats

Yang, Mengjin, Li, Zhen, Reese, Matthew O., Reid, Obadiah G., Kim, Dong Hoe, Siol, Sebastian, Klein, Talysa R., Yan, Yanfa, Berry, Joseph J., van Hest, Maikel F. A. M., and Zhu, Kai. Perovskite ink with wide processing window for scalable high-efficiency solar cells. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1038/nenergy.2017.38.
Yang, Mengjin, Li, Zhen, Reese, Matthew O., Reid, Obadiah G., Kim, Dong Hoe, Siol, Sebastian, Klein, Talysa R., Yan, Yanfa, Berry, Joseph J., van Hest, Maikel F. A. M., & Zhu, Kai. Perovskite ink with wide processing window for scalable high-efficiency solar cells. United States. doi:10.1038/nenergy.2017.38.
Yang, Mengjin, Li, Zhen, Reese, Matthew O., Reid, Obadiah G., Kim, Dong Hoe, Siol, Sebastian, Klein, Talysa R., Yan, Yanfa, Berry, Joseph J., van Hest, Maikel F. A. M., and Zhu, Kai. Mon . "Perovskite ink with wide processing window for scalable high-efficiency solar cells". United States. doi:10.1038/nenergy.2017.38. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1349021.
@article{osti_1349021,
title = {Perovskite ink with wide processing window for scalable high-efficiency solar cells},
author = {Yang, Mengjin and Li, Zhen and Reese, Matthew O. and Reid, Obadiah G. and Kim, Dong Hoe and Siol, Sebastian and Klein, Talysa R. and Yan, Yanfa and Berry, Joseph J. and van Hest, Maikel F. A. M. and Zhu, Kai},
abstractNote = {Perovskite solar cells have made tremendous progress using laboratory-scale spin-coating methods in the past few years owing to advances in controls of perovskite film deposition. However, devices made via scalable methods are still lagging behind state-of-the-art spin-coated devices because of the complicated nature of perovskite crystallization from a precursor state. Here we demonstrate a chlorine-containing methylammonium lead iodide precursor formulation along with solvent tuning to enable a wide precursor-processing window (up to ~8 min) and a rapid grain growth rate (as short as ~1 min). Coupled with antisolvent extraction, this precursor ink delivers high-quality perovskite films with large-scale uniformity. The ink can be used by both spin-coating and blade-coating methods with indistinguishable film morphology and device performance. Using a blade-coated absorber, devices with 0.12-cm2 and 1.2-cm2 areas yield average efficiencies of 18.55% and 17.33%, respectively. As a result, we further demonstrate a 12.6-cm2 four-cell module (88% geometric fill factor) with 13.3% stabilized active-area efficiency output.},
doi = {10.1038/nenergy.2017.38},
journal = {Nature Energy},
number = ,
volume = 2,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {3}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 11 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Efficient Semitransparent Perovskite Solar Cells for 23.0%-Efficiency Perovskite/Silicon Four-Terminal Tandem Cells
journal, July 2016


Inkjet printing of CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 on a mesoscopic TiO 2 film for highly efficient perovskite solar cells
journal, January 2015

  • Li, Shao-Gang; Jiang, Ke-Jian; Su, Mei-Ju
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 3, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1039/C4TA05675B

A large area (70 cm 2 ) monolithic perovskite solar module with a high efficiency and stability
journal, January 2016

  • Priyadarshi, Anish; Haur, Lew Jia; Murray, Paul
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 9, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1039/C6EE02693A

A two-step route to planar perovskite cells exhibiting reduced hysteresis
journal, April 2015

  • Ip, Alexander H.; Quan, Li Na; Adachi, Michael M.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 106, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4917238

Scalable fabrication of efficient organolead trihalide perovskite solar cells with doctor-bladed active layers
journal, January 2015

  • Deng, Yehao; Peng, Edwin; Shao, Yuchuan
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 8, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1039/C4EE03907F

Efficient charge extraction and slow recombination in organic–inorganic perovskites capped with semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes
journal, January 2016

  • Ihly, Rachelle; Dowgiallo, Anne-Marie; Yang, Mengjin
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 9, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1039/C5EE03806E

Inkjet Printing and Instant Chemical Transformation of a CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 /Nanocarbon Electrode and Interface for Planar Perovskite Solar Cells
journal, September 2014

  • Wei, Zhanhua; Chen, Haining; Yan, Keyou
  • Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 53, Issue 48
  • DOI: 10.1002/anie.201408638

A hole-conductor-free, fully printable mesoscopic perovskite solar cell with high stability
journal, July 2014


Room-temperature crystallization of hybrid-perovskite thin films via solvent–solvent extraction for high-performance solar cells
journal, January 2015

  • Zhou, Yuanyuan; Yang, Mengjin; Wu, Wenwen
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 3, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1039/C5TA00477B

Pushing efficiency limits for semitransparent perovskite solar cells
journal, January 2015

  • Ramírez Quiroz, César Omar; Levchuk, Ievgen; Bronnbauer, Carina
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 3, Issue 47
  • DOI: 10.1039/C5TA08450D

Sequential deposition as a route to high-performance perovskite-sensitized solar cells
journal, July 2013

  • Burschka, Julian; Pellet, Norman; Moon, Soo-Jin
  • Nature, Vol. 499, Issue 7458, p. 316-319
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature12340

Efficient planar heterojunction mixed-halide perovskite solar cells deposited via spray-deposition
journal, January 2014

  • Barrows, Alexander T.; Pearson, Andrew J.; Kwak, Chan Kyu
  • Energy Environ. Sci., Vol. 7, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1039/C4EE01546K

Organometal Halide Perovskites as Visible-Light Sensitizers for Photovoltaic Cells
journal, May 2009

  • Kojima, Akihiro; Teshima, Kenjiro; Shirai, Yasuo
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 131, Issue 17, p. 6050-6051
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja809598r

Square-Centimeter Solution-Processed Planar CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 Perovskite Solar Cells with Efficiency Exceeding 15%
journal, September 2015

  • Yang, Mengjin; Zhou, Yuanyuan; Zeng, Yining
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 27, Issue 41
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201502586

Direct Conversion of CH3NH3PbI3 from Electrodeposited PbO for Highly Efficient Planar Perovskite Solar Cells
journal, October 2015

  • Huang, Jin-hua; Jiang, Ke-jian; Cui, Xue-ping
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 5, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep15889

Ultra-thin high efficiency semitransparent perovskite solar cells
journal, April 2015


Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells
journal, July 2014


High-performance photovoltaic perovskite layers fabricated through intramolecular exchange
journal, May 2015


Microstructures of Organometal Trihalide Perovskites for Solar Cells: Their Evolution from Solutions and Characterization
journal, November 2015

  • Zhou, Yuanyuan; Game, Onkar S.; Pang, Shuping
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, Vol. 6, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpclett.5b01843

Heterojunction Modification for Highly Efficient Organic–Inorganic Perovskite Solar Cells
journal, November 2014

  • Wojciechowski, Konrad; Stranks, Samuel D.; Abate, Antonio
  • ACS Nano, Vol. 8, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1021/nn505723h

Photovoltaic Performance of Perovskite Solar Cells with Different Grain Sizes
journal, December 2015

  • Kim, Hyung Do; Ohkita, Hideo; Benten, Hiroaki
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 28, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504144

In situ investigation of the formation and metastability of formamidinium lead tri-iodide perovskite solar cells
journal, January 2016

  • Aguiar, Jeffery A.; Wozny, Sarah; Holesinger, Terry G.
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 9, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1039/C6EE01079B

Highly Reproducible Perovskite Solar Cells with Average Efficiency of 18.3% and Best Efficiency of 19.7% Fabricated via Lewis Base Adduct of Lead(II) Iodide
journal, July 2015

  • Ahn, Namyoung; Son, Dae-Yong; Jang, In-Hyuk
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 137, Issue 27
  • DOI: 10.1021/jacs.5b04930

Research Update: Large-area deposition, coating, printing, and processing techniques for the upscaling of perovskite solar cell technology
journal, September 2016

  • Razza, Stefano; Castro-Hermosa, Sergio; Di Carlo, Aldo
  • APL Materials, Vol. 4, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4962478

Morphology changes upon scaling a high-efficiency, solution-processed solar cell
journal, January 2016

  • Ro, Hyun Wook; Downing, Jonathan M.; Engmann, Sebastian
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 9, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1039/C6EE01623E

Current Challenges and Prospective Research for Upscaling Hybrid Perovskite Photovoltaics
journal, February 2016

  • Williams, Spencer T.; Rajagopal, Adharsh; Chueh, Chu-Chen
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, Vol. 7, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpclett.5b02651

Large-area hysteresis-free perovskite solar cells via temperature controlled doctor blading under ambient environment
journal, June 2016


Solvent engineering for high-performance inorganic–organic hybrid perovskite solar cells
journal, July 2014

  • Jeon, Nam Joong; Noh, Jun Hong; Kim, Young Chan
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 13, Issue 9, p. 897-903
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat4014

A vacuum flash–assisted solution process for high-efficiency large-area perovskite solar cells
journal, June 2016


Efficient Hybrid Solar Cells Based on Meso-Superstructured Organometal Halide Perovskites
journal, October 2012


Solid-state solar modules based on mesoscopic organometal halide perovskite: a route towards the up-scaling process
journal, January 2014

  • Matteocci, F.; Razza, S.; Di Giacomo, F.
  • Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 16, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1039/c3cp55313b

Interfacial modification of hole transport layers for efficient large-area perovskite solar cells achieved via blade-coating
journal, January 2016


High Performance of Planar Perovskite Solar Cells Produced from PbI 2 (DMSO) and PbI 2 (NMP) Complexes by Intramolecular Exchange
journal, February 2016

  • Jo, Yimhyun; Oh, Kyoung Suk; Kim, Minjin
  • Advanced Materials Interfaces, Vol. 3, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1002/admi.201500768

Perovskite-based solar cells: impact of morphology and device architecture on device performance
journal, January 2015

  • Salim, Teddy; Sun, Shuangyong; Abe, Yuichiro
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 3, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1039/C4TA05226A

A Fast Deposition-Crystallization Procedure for Highly Efficient Lead Iodide Perovskite Thin-Film Solar Cells
journal, July 2014

  • Xiao, Manda; Huang, Fuzhi; Huang, Wenchao
  • Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 53, Issue 37
  • DOI: 10.1002/anie.201405334

Perovskite solar cells and large area modules (100 cm 2 ) based on an air flow-assisted PbI 2 blade coating deposition process
journal, March 2015


Toward Large Scale Roll-to-Roll Production of Fully Printed Perovskite Solar Cells
journal, January 2015

  • Hwang, Kyeongil; Jung, Yen-Sook; Heo, Youn-Jung
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 27, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404598

Solvent Annealing of Perovskite-Induced Crystal Growth for Photovoltaic-Device Efficiency Enhancement
journal, August 2014


Cooperative tin oxide fullerene electron selective layers for high-performance planar perovskite solar cells
journal, January 2016

  • Ke, Weijun; Zhao, Dewei; Xiao, Chuanxiao
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 4, Issue 37
  • DOI: 10.1039/C6TA05095F

Compositional engineering of perovskite materials for high-performance solar cells
journal, January 2015

  • Jeon, Nam Joong; Noh, Jun Hong; Yang, Woon Seok
  • Nature, Vol. 517, Issue 7535
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature14133

Benefits of very thin PCBM and LiF layers for solution-processed p–i–n perovskite solar cells
journal, January 2014

  • Seo, Jangwon; Park, Sangman; Chan Kim, Young
  • Energy Environ. Sci., Vol. 7, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1039/C4EE01216J

Hybrid Halide Perovskite Solar Cell Precursors: Colloidal Chemistry and Coordination Engineering behind Device Processing for High Efficiency
journal, March 2015

  • Yan, Keyou; Long, Mingzhu; Zhang, Tiankai
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 137, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1021/jacs.5b00321

High-Performance Fully Printable Perovskite Solar Cells via Blade-Coating Technique under the Ambient Condition
journal, April 2015

  • Yang, Zhibin; Chueh, Chu-Chen; Zuo, Fan
  • Advanced Energy Materials, Vol. 5, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500328

Lead Iodide Perovskite Sensitized All-Solid-State Submicron Thin Film Mesoscopic Solar Cell with Efficiency Exceeding 9%
journal, August 2012

  • Kim, Hui-Seon; Lee, Chang-Ryul; Im, Jeong-Hyeok
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 2, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep00591

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Scalable Deposition Methods for Large‐area Production of Perovskite Thin Films
    journal, June 2019

    • Swartwout, Richard; Hoerantner, Maximilian T.; Bulović, V.
    • ENERGY & ENVIRONMENTAL MATERIALS, Vol. 2, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1002/eem2.12043

    Effects of precursor composition on morphology and microstructure of hybrid organic–inorganic perovskite solar cells
    journal, June 2019


    A mixed solvent for rapid fabrication of large-area methylammonium lead iodide layers by one-step coating at room temperature
    journal, January 2019

    • Liu, Qiuju; Zhao, Yanan; Ma, Yinxing
    • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 7, Issue 31
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9ta06084g

    Meniscus fabrication of halide perovskite thin films at high throughput for large area and low-cost solar panels
    journal, June 2019

    • Dai, Xuezeng; Deng, Yehao; Van Brackle, Charles H.
    • International Journal of Extreme Manufacturing, Vol. 1, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1088/2631-7990/ab263e

    Scalable Deposition Methods for Large‐area Production of Perovskite Thin Films
    journal, June 2019

    • Swartwout, Richard; Hoerantner, Maximilian T.; Bulović, V.
    • ENERGY & ENVIRONMENTAL MATERIALS, Vol. 2, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1002/eem2.12043

    Effects of precursor composition on morphology and microstructure of hybrid organic–inorganic perovskite solar cells
    journal, June 2019


    A mixed solvent for rapid fabrication of large-area methylammonium lead iodide layers by one-step coating at room temperature
    journal, January 2019

    • Liu, Qiuju; Zhao, Yanan; Ma, Yinxing
    • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 7, Issue 31
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9ta06084g

    Meniscus fabrication of halide perovskite thin films at high throughput for large area and low-cost solar panels
    journal, June 2019

    • Dai, Xuezeng; Deng, Yehao; Van Brackle, Charles H.
    • International Journal of Extreme Manufacturing, Vol. 1, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1088/2631-7990/ab263e

    Colloidal engineering for monolayer CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 films toward high performance perovskite solar cells
    journal, January 2017

    • Li, Bo; Li, Mengjie; Fei, Chengbin
    • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 5, Issue 46
    • DOI: 10.1039/c7ta08761f