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Title: Perovskite ink with wide processing window for scalable high-efficiency solar cells

Perovskite solar cells have made tremendous progress using laboratory-scale spin-coating methods in the past few years owing to advances in controls of perovskite film deposition. However, devices made via scalable methods are still lagging behind state-of-the-art spin-coated devices because of the complicated nature of perovskite crystallization from a precursor state. Here we demonstrate a chlorine-containing methylammonium lead iodide precursor formulation along with solvent tuning to enable a wide precursor-processing window (up to ~8 min) and a rapid grain growth rate (as short as ~1 min). Coupled with antisolvent extraction, this precursor ink delivers high-quality perovskite films with large-scale uniformity. The ink can be used by both spin-coating and blade-coating methods with indistinguishable film morphology and device performance. Using a blade-coated absorber, devices with 0.12-cm 2 and 1.2-cm 2 areas yield average efficiencies of 18.55% and 17.33%, respectively. As a result, we further demonstrate a 12.6-cm 2 four-cell module (88% geometric fill factor) with 13.3% stabilized active-area efficiency output.
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  1. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  2. The Univ. of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 2058-7546
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Energy
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 2058-7546
Nature Publishing Group
Research Org:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Solar Energy Technologies Office (EE-4S)
Country of Publication:
United States
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; perovskites; solar cells; precursor ink
OSTI Identifier: