skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Room temperature, air crystallized perovskite film for high performance solar cells

Abstract

For the first time, room temperature heating free growth and crystallization of perovskite films in ambient air without the use of thermal annealing is reported. Highly efficient perovskite nanorod-based solar cells were made using ITO/PEDOT:PSS/CH3NH3PbI3 nanorods/PC60BM/rhodamine/Ag. All the layers except PEDOT:PSS were processed at room temperature thereby eliminating the need for thermal treatment. Perovskite films were spin coated inside a N-2 filled glovebox and immediately were taken outside in air having 40% relative humidity (RH). Exposure to humid air was observed to promote the crystallization process in perovskite films even at room temperature. Perovskite films kept for 5 hours in ambient air showed nanorod-like morphology having high crystallinity, with devices exhibiting the highest PCE of 16.83%, which is much higher than the PCE of 11.94% for traditional thermally annealed perovskite film based devices. Finally, it was concluded that moisture plays an important role in room temperature crystallization of pure perovskite nanorods, showing improved optical and charge transport properties, which resulted in high performance solar cells.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [3];  [1]
  1. South Dakota State Univ., Brookings, SD (United States)
  2. Indian Institute of Technology, Ropar (India)
  3. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA); National Science Foundation (NSF); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES)
OSTI Identifier:
1346740
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Materials Chemistry. A
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 4; Journal Issue: 26; Journal ID: ISSN 2050-7488
Publisher:
Royal Society of Chemistry
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Citation Formats

Dubey, Ashish, Kantack, Nicholas, Adhikari, Nirmal, Reza, Khan Mamun, Venkatesan, Swaminathan, Kumar, Mukesh, Khatiwada, Devendra, Darling, Seth, and Qiao, Qiquan. Room temperature, air crystallized perovskite film for high performance solar cells. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. https://doi.org/10.1039/c6ta02918c.
Dubey, Ashish, Kantack, Nicholas, Adhikari, Nirmal, Reza, Khan Mamun, Venkatesan, Swaminathan, Kumar, Mukesh, Khatiwada, Devendra, Darling, Seth, & Qiao, Qiquan. Room temperature, air crystallized perovskite film for high performance solar cells. United States. https://doi.org/10.1039/c6ta02918c
Dubey, Ashish, Kantack, Nicholas, Adhikari, Nirmal, Reza, Khan Mamun, Venkatesan, Swaminathan, Kumar, Mukesh, Khatiwada, Devendra, Darling, Seth, and Qiao, Qiquan. Tue . "Room temperature, air crystallized perovskite film for high performance solar cells". United States. https://doi.org/10.1039/c6ta02918c. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1346740.
@article{osti_1346740,
title = {Room temperature, air crystallized perovskite film for high performance solar cells},
author = {Dubey, Ashish and Kantack, Nicholas and Adhikari, Nirmal and Reza, Khan Mamun and Venkatesan, Swaminathan and Kumar, Mukesh and Khatiwada, Devendra and Darling, Seth and Qiao, Qiquan},
abstractNote = {For the first time, room temperature heating free growth and crystallization of perovskite films in ambient air without the use of thermal annealing is reported. Highly efficient perovskite nanorod-based solar cells were made using ITO/PEDOT:PSS/CH3NH3PbI3 nanorods/PC60BM/rhodamine/Ag. All the layers except PEDOT:PSS were processed at room temperature thereby eliminating the need for thermal treatment. Perovskite films were spin coated inside a N-2 filled glovebox and immediately were taken outside in air having 40% relative humidity (RH). Exposure to humid air was observed to promote the crystallization process in perovskite films even at room temperature. Perovskite films kept for 5 hours in ambient air showed nanorod-like morphology having high crystallinity, with devices exhibiting the highest PCE of 16.83%, which is much higher than the PCE of 11.94% for traditional thermally annealed perovskite film based devices. Finally, it was concluded that moisture plays an important role in room temperature crystallization of pure perovskite nanorods, showing improved optical and charge transport properties, which resulted in high performance solar cells.},
doi = {10.1039/c6ta02918c},
journal = {Journal of Materials Chemistry. A},
number = 26,
volume = 4,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {5}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 11 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Reversible Hydration of CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 in Films, Single Crystals, and Solar Cells
journal, April 2015


Solid state transformation of the crystalline monohydrate (CH 3 NH 3 )PbI 3 (H 2 O) to the (CH 3 NH 3 )PbI 3 perovskite
journal, January 2015

  • Imler, Gregory H.; Li, Xia; Xu, Bolei
  • Chemical Communications, Vol. 51, Issue 56
  • DOI: 10.1039/c5cc03741g

High efficiency stable inverted perovskite solar cells without current hysteresis
journal, January 2015

  • Wu, Chun-Guey; Chiang, Chien-Hung; Tseng, Zong-Liang
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 8, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1039/c5ee00645g

Strategic review of secondary phases, defects and defect-complexes in kesterite CZTS–Se solar cells
journal, January 2015

  • Kumar, Mukesh; Dubey, Ashish; Adhikari, Nirmal
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 8, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1039/c5ee02153g

Reduced surface defects of organometallic perovskite by thermal annealing for highly efficient perovskite solar cells
journal, January 2015

  • Cui, Peng; Fu, Pengfei; Wei, Dong
  • RSC Advances, Vol. 5, Issue 92
  • DOI: 10.1039/c5ra16669a

Influence of moisture on the preparation, crystal structure, and photophysical properties of organohalide perovskites
journal, January 2014

  • Bass, Kelsey K.; McAnally, R. Eric; Zhou, Shiliang
  • Chem. Commun., Vol. 50, Issue 99
  • DOI: 10.1039/c4cc05231e

Efficient, high yield perovskite photovoltaic devices grown by interdiffusion of solution-processed precursor stacking layers
journal, January 2014

  • Xiao, Zhengguo; Bi, Cheng; Shao, Yuchuan
  • Energy Environ. Sci., Vol. 7, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1039/c4ee01138d

Benzothiadiazole-based polymer for single and double junction solar cells with high open circuit voltage
journal, January 2014

  • Venkatesan, Swaminathan; Ngo, Evan C.; Chen, Qiliang
  • Nanoscale, Vol. 6, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01040j

High-performance photovoltaic perovskite layers fabricated through intramolecular exchange
journal, May 2015


CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 Perovskite/Fullerene Planar-Heterojunction Hybrid Solar Cells
journal, June 2013

  • Jeng, Jun-Yuan; Chiang, Yi-Fang; Lee, Mu-Huan
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 25, Issue 27
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301327

Dye-sensitized solar cells based on spray-coated carbon nanofiber/TiO2 nanoparticle composite counter electrodes
journal, January 2014

  • Sigdel, Sudhan; Dubey, Ashish; Elbohy, Hytham
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 2, Issue 29
  • DOI: 10.1039/c4ta00959b

Highly Reproducible Perovskite Solar Cells with Average Efficiency of 18.3% and Best Efficiency of 19.7% Fabricated via Lewis Base Adduct of Lead(II) Iodide
journal, July 2015

  • Ahn, Namyoung; Son, Dae-Yong; Jang, In-Hyuk
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 137, Issue 27
  • DOI: 10.1021/jacs.5b04930

Solution processed pristine PDPP3T polymer as hole transport layer for efficient perovskite solar cells with slower degradation
journal, February 2016

  • Dubey, Ashish; Adhikari, Nirmal; Venkatesan, Swaminathan
  • Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Vol. 145
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.solmat.2015.10.008

Solvent engineering for high-performance inorganic–organic hybrid perovskite solar cells
journal, July 2014

  • Jeon, Nam Joong; Noh, Jun Hong; Kim, Young Chan
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 13, Issue 9, p. 897-903
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat4014

Origin of photogenerated carrier recombination at the metal–active layer interface in polymer solar cells
journal, January 2015

  • Kumar, Mukesh; Dubey, Ashish; Reza, Khan Mamun
  • Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 17, Issue 41
  • DOI: 10.1039/c5cp04831a

Investigation of CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 Degradation Rates and Mechanisms in Controlled Humidity Environments Using in Situ Techniques
journal, January 2015

  • Yang, Jinli; Siempelkamp, Braden D.; Liu, Dianyi
  • ACS Nano, Vol. 9, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1021/nn506864k

Semiconducting Tin and Lead Iodide Perovskites with Organic Cations: Phase Transitions, High Mobilities, and Near-Infrared Photoluminescent Properties
journal, July 2013

  • Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Malliakas, Christos D.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.
  • Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 52, Issue 15, p. 9019-9038
  • DOI: 10.1021/ic401215x

Room-temperature crystallization of hybrid-perovskite thin films via solvent–solvent extraction for high-performance solar cells
journal, January 2015

  • Zhou, Yuanyuan; Yang, Mengjin; Wu, Wenwen
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 3, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1039/c5ta00477b

Transformation of the Excited State and Photovoltaic Efficiency of CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 Perovskite upon Controlled Exposure to Humidified Air
journal, January 2015

  • Christians, Jeffrey A.; Miranda Herrera, Pierre A.; Kamat, Prashant V.
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 137, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja511132a

Solvent engineering towards controlled grain growth in perovskite planar heterojunction solar cells
journal, January 2015

  • Rong, Yaoguang; Tang, Zhongjia; Zhao, Yufeng
  • Nanoscale, Vol. 7, Issue 24
  • DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02866c

Organic solvent vapor sensitive methylammonium lead trihalide film formation for efficient hybrid perovskite solar cells
journal, January 2015

  • Lian, Jiarong; Wang, Qi; Yuan, Yongbo
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 3, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1039/c5ta01595b

Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells by Temperature Control in Single and Mixed Halide Precursor Solutions and Films
journal, November 2015

  • Khatiwada, Devendra; Venkatesan, Swaminathan; Adhikari, Nirmal
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol. 119, Issue 46
  • DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.5b08294

Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells via Vapor-Assisted Solution Process
journal, December 2013

  • Chen, Qi; Zhou, Huanping; Hong, Ziruo
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 136, Issue 2, p. 622-625
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja411509g

Perovskite Solar Cells with Near 100% Internal Quantum Efficiency Based on Large Single Crystalline Grains and Vertical Bulk Heterojunctions
journal, July 2015

  • Yang, Bin; Dyck, Ondrej; Poplawsky, Jonathan
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 137, Issue 29
  • DOI: 10.1021/jacs.5b03144

Growth and Anion Exchange Conversion of CH 3 NH 3 PbX 3 Nanorod Arrays for Light-Emitting Diodes
journal, July 2015


Non-Thermal Annealing Fabrication of Efficient Planar Perovskite Solar Cells with Inclusion of NH 4 Cl
journal, February 2015


Controllable Perovskite Crystallization at a Gas–Solid Interface for Hole Conductor-Free Solar Cells with Steady Power Conversion Efficiency over 10%
journal, November 2014

  • Hao, Feng; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Liu, Zhao
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 136, Issue 46
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja509245x

Sequential deposition as a route to high-performance perovskite-sensitized solar cells
journal, July 2013

  • Burschka, Julian; Pellet, Norman; Moon, Soo-Jin
  • Nature, Vol. 499, Issue 7458, p. 316-319
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature12340

Abnormal crystal growth in CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3−x Cl x using a multi-cycle solution coating process
journal, January 2015

  • Dong, Qingfeng; Yuan, Yongbo; Shao, Yuchuan
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 8, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1039/c5ee01179e

Incorporation of plasmonic Au nanostars into photoanodes for high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells
journal, January 2016

  • Elbohy, Hytham; Kim, Mee Rahn; Dubey, Ashish
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 4, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1039/c5ta06425b

Perovskite photovoltaics: life-cycle assessment of energy and environmental impacts
journal, January 2015

  • Gong, Jian; Darling, Seth B.; You, Fengqi
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 8, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1039/c5ee00615e

Interfacial Study To Suppress Charge Carrier Recombination for High Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells
journal, November 2015

  • Adhikari, Nirmal; Dubey, Ashish; Khatiwada, Devendra
  • ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, Vol. 7, Issue 48
  • DOI: 10.1021/acsami.5b09797

Efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells by vapour deposition
journal, September 2013

  • Liu, Mingzhen; Johnston, Michael B.; Snaith, Henry J.
  • Nature, Vol. 501, Issue 7467, p. 395-398
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature12509

Efficiency enhancement of planar perovskite solar cells by adding zwitterion/LiF double interlayers for electron collection
journal, January 2015

  • Sun, Kuan; Chang, Jingjing; Isikgor, Furkan Halis
  • Nanoscale, Vol. 7, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05975a

Efficient planar heterojunction mixed-halide perovskite solar cells deposited via spray-deposition
journal, January 2014

  • Barrows, Alexander T.; Pearson, Andrew J.; Kwak, Chan Kyu
  • Energy Environ. Sci., Vol. 7, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1039/c4ee01546k

Alkylammonium lead halides. Part 1. Isolated PbI 6 4− ions in (CH 3 NH 3 ) 4 PbI 6 •2H 2 O
journal, May 1987

  • Vincent, Beverly R.; Robertson, Katherine N.; Cameron, T. Stanley
  • Canadian Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 65, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1139/v87-176

Improved performance by morphology control via fullerenes in PBDT-TBT-alkoBT based organic solar cells
journal, January 2015

  • Khatiwada, Devendra; Venkatesan, Swaminathan; Chen, Qiliang
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 3, Issue 29
  • DOI: 10.1039/c5ta02709h

Strategic review of secondary phases, defects and defect-complexes in kesterite CZTS–Se solar cells
journal, January 2015

  • Kumar, Mukesh; Dubey, Ashish; Adhikari, Nirmal
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 8, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1039/C5EE02153G

Incorporation of plasmonic Au nanostars into photoanodes for high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells
journal, January 2016

  • Elbohy, Hytham; Kim, Mee Rahn; Dubey, Ashish
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 4, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1039/C5TA06425B

Origin of photogenerated carrier recombination at the metal–active layer interface in polymer solar cells
journal, January 2015

  • Kumar, Mukesh; Dubey, Ashish; Reza, Khan Mamun
  • Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 17, Issue 41
  • DOI: 10.1039/C5CP04831A

Improved performance by morphology control via fullerenes in PBDT-TBT-alkoBT based organic solar cells
journal, January 2015

  • Khatiwada, Devendra; Venkatesan, Swaminathan; Chen, Qiliang
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 3, Issue 29
  • DOI: 10.1039/C5TA02709H

Perovskite photovoltaics: life-cycle assessment of energy and environmental impacts
journal, January 2015

  • Gong, Jian; Darling, Seth B.; You, Fengqi
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 8, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1039/C5EE00615E

High efficiency stable inverted perovskite solar cells without current hysteresis
journal, January 2015

  • Wu, Chun-Guey; Chiang, Chien-Hung; Tseng, Zong-Liang
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 8, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1039/C5EE00645G

Solvent engineering towards controlled grain growth in perovskite planar heterojunction solar cells
journal, January 2015

  • Rong, Yaoguang; Tang, Zhongjia; Zhao, Yufeng
  • Nanoscale, Vol. 7, Issue 24
  • DOI: 10.1039/C5NR02866C

Efficient, high yield perovskite photovoltaic devices grown by interdiffusion of solution-processed precursor stacking layers
journal, January 2014

  • Xiao, Zhengguo; Bi, Cheng; Shao, Yuchuan
  • Energy Environ. Sci., Vol. 7, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1039/C4EE01138D

Efficient planar heterojunction mixed-halide perovskite solar cells deposited via spray-deposition
journal, January 2014

  • Barrows, Alexander T.; Pearson, Andrew J.; Kwak, Chan Kyu
  • Energy Environ. Sci., Vol. 7, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1039/C4EE01546K

Room-temperature crystallization of hybrid-perovskite thin films via solvent–solvent extraction for high-performance solar cells
journal, January 2015

  • Zhou, Yuanyuan; Yang, Mengjin; Wu, Wenwen
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 3, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1039/C5TA00477B

Efficiency enhancement of planar perovskite solar cells by adding zwitterion/LiF double interlayers for electron collection
journal, January 2015

  • Sun, Kuan; Chang, Jingjing; Isikgor, Furkan Halis
  • Nanoscale, Vol. 7, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1039/C4NR05975A

Abnormal crystal growth in CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3−x Cl x using a multi-cycle solution coating process
journal, January 2015

  • Dong, Qingfeng; Yuan, Yongbo; Shao, Yuchuan
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 8, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1039/C5EE01179E

Solid state transformation of the crystalline monohydrate (CH 3 NH 3 )PbI 3 (H 2 O) to the (CH 3 NH 3 )PbI 3 perovskite
journal, January 2015

  • Imler, Gregory H.; Li, Xia; Xu, Bolei
  • Chemical Communications, Vol. 51, Issue 56
  • DOI: 10.1039/C5CC03741G

Influence of moisture on the preparation, crystal structure, and photophysical properties of organohalide perovskites
journal, January 2014

  • Bass, Kelsey K.; McAnally, R. Eric; Zhou, Shiliang
  • Chem. Commun., Vol. 50, Issue 99
  • DOI: 10.1039/C4CC05231E

Reduced surface defects of organometallic perovskite by thermal annealing for highly efficient perovskite solar cells
journal, January 2015

  • Cui, Peng; Fu, Pengfei; Wei, Dong
  • RSC Advances, Vol. 5, Issue 92
  • DOI: 10.1039/C5RA16669A

Organic solvent vapor sensitive methylammonium lead trihalide film formation for efficient hybrid perovskite solar cells
journal, January 2015

  • Lian, Jiarong; Wang, Qi; Yuan, Yongbo
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 3, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1039/C5TA01595B

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    A strategic review on processing routes towards highly efficient perovskite solar cells
    journal, January 2018

    • Dubey, Ashish; Adhikari, Nirmal; Mabrouk, Sally
    • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 6, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1039/c7ta08277k

    Steering the crystallization of perovskites for high-performance solar cells in ambient air
    journal, January 2019

    • Wang, Feng; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Yafei
    • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 7, Issue 19
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9ta02566a

    Inducing Crystallinity of Metal Thin Films with Weak Magnetic Fields without Thermal Annealing
    journal, September 2018

    • Ručman, Stefan; Punyodom, Winita; Jakmunee, Jaroon
    • Crystals, Vol. 8, Issue 9
    • DOI: 10.3390/cryst8090362

    Improved Performance of Carbon Electrode Perovskite Solar Cells Using Urea Treatment in Two‐Step Processing
    journal, February 2020


    Perovskite Thin Film Consisting with One-Dimensional Nanowires
    journal, September 2018

    • Li, Xinli; Chen, Yongchao; Li, Lihua
    • Materials, Vol. 11, Issue 9
    • DOI: 10.3390/ma11091759

    Effect of Different CH3NH3PbI3 Morphologies on Photovoltaic Properties of Perovskite Solar Cells
    journal, May 2018


    Tuning Hole Transport Layer Using Urea for High‐Performance Perovskite Solar Cells
    journal, December 2018

    • Elbohy, Hytham; Bahrami, Behzad; Mabrouk, Sally
    • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 29, Issue 47
    • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201806740

    Synergistic engineering of hole transport materials in perovskite solar cells
    journal, November 2019

    • Mabrouk, Sally; Bahrami, Behzad; Elbohy, Hytham
    • InfoMat, Vol. 2, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1002/inf2.12062

    Highly Efficient Perovskite Solar Cell Photocharging of Lithium Ion Battery Using DC-DC Booster
    journal, January 2017


    Effect of Water, Oxygen, and Air Exposure on CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3– x Cl x Perovskite Surface Electronic Properties
    journal, September 2018

    • Ralaiarisoa, Maryline; Salzmann, Ingo; Zu, Feng‐Shuo
    • Advanced Electronic Materials, Vol. 4, Issue 12
    • DOI: 10.1002/aelm.201800307