skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Understanding limiting factors in thick electrode performance as applied to high energy density Li-ion batteries

Abstract

We present that increasing electrode thickness, thus increasing the volume ratio of active materials, is one effective method to enable the development of high energy density Li-ion batteries. In this study, an energy density versus power density optimization of LiNi 0.8Co 0.15Al 0.05O 2 (NCA)/graphite cell stack was conducted via mathematical modeling. The energy density was found to have a maximum point versus electrode thickness (critical thickness) at given discharging C rates. The physics-based factors that limit the energy/power density of thick electrodes were found to be increased cell polarization and underutilization of active materials. The latter is affected by Li-ion diffusion in active materials and Li-ion depletion in the electrolyte phase. Based on those findings, possible approaches were derived to surmount the limiting factors. Finally, the improvement of the energy–power relationship in an 18,650 cell was used to demonstrate how to optimize the thick electrode parameters in cell engineering.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [1]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Energy and Transportation Science Division
  2. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Division
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V)
OSTI Identifier:
1346648
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Applied Electrochemistry
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 47; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 0021-891X
Publisher:
Springer
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 25 ENERGY STORAGE; Thick electrodes; Numerical modeling; Energy/power density; Li-ion depletion

Citation Formats

Du, Zhijia, Wood, David L., Daniel, Claus, Kalnaus, Sergiy, and Li, Jianlin. Understanding limiting factors in thick electrode performance as applied to high energy density Li-ion batteries. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1007/s10800-017-1047-4.
Du, Zhijia, Wood, David L., Daniel, Claus, Kalnaus, Sergiy, & Li, Jianlin. Understanding limiting factors in thick electrode performance as applied to high energy density Li-ion batteries. United States. doi:10.1007/s10800-017-1047-4.
Du, Zhijia, Wood, David L., Daniel, Claus, Kalnaus, Sergiy, and Li, Jianlin. Thu . "Understanding limiting factors in thick electrode performance as applied to high energy density Li-ion batteries". United States. doi:10.1007/s10800-017-1047-4. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1346648.
@article{osti_1346648,
title = {Understanding limiting factors in thick electrode performance as applied to high energy density Li-ion batteries},
author = {Du, Zhijia and Wood, David L. and Daniel, Claus and Kalnaus, Sergiy and Li, Jianlin},
abstractNote = {We present that increasing electrode thickness, thus increasing the volume ratio of active materials, is one effective method to enable the development of high energy density Li-ion batteries. In this study, an energy density versus power density optimization of LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA)/graphite cell stack was conducted via mathematical modeling. The energy density was found to have a maximum point versus electrode thickness (critical thickness) at given discharging C rates. The physics-based factors that limit the energy/power density of thick electrodes were found to be increased cell polarization and underutilization of active materials. The latter is affected by Li-ion diffusion in active materials and Li-ion depletion in the electrolyte phase. Based on those findings, possible approaches were derived to surmount the limiting factors. Finally, the improvement of the energy–power relationship in an 18,650 cell was used to demonstrate how to optimize the thick electrode parameters in cell engineering.},
doi = {10.1007/s10800-017-1047-4},
journal = {Journal of Applied Electrochemistry},
number = 3,
volume = 47,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {2}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 5 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Optimal Porosity Distribution for Minimized Ohmic Drop across a Porous Electrode
journal, January 2010

  • Ramadesigan, Venkatasailanathan; Methekar, Ravi N.; Latinwo, Folarin
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 157, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.3495992

High Energy Density Calendered Si Alloy/Graphite Anodes
journal, January 2014

  • Du, Zhijia; Dunlap, R. A.; Obrovac, M. N.
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 161, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1149/2.0941410jes

High-energy electrode investigation for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles
journal, February 2011


A comprehensive understanding of electrode thickness effects on the electrochemical performances of Li-ion battery cathodes
journal, June 2012


Optimization of Porosity and Thickness of a Battery Electrode by Means of a Reaction-Zone Model
journal, January 1995

  • Newman, John
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 142, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.2043956

Electrochemical and physical properties of the LixNi1$minus;yCoyO2 phases
journal, July 1992


Alternating Current Impedance Electrochemical Modeling of Lithium-Ion Positive Electrodes
journal, January 2005

  • Dees, Dennis; Gunen, Evren; Abraham, Daniel
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 152, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.1928169

Simulation and Optimization of the Dual Lithium Ion Insertion Cell
journal, January 1994

  • Fuller, Thomas F.
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 141, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.2054684

Transport Properties of LiPF[sub 6]-Based Li-Ion Battery Electrolytes
journal, January 2005

  • Valo̸en, Lars Ole; Reimers, Jan N.
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 152, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.1872737

Modeling of Galvanostatic Charge and Discharge of the Lithium/Polymer/Insertion Cell
journal, January 1993

  • Doyle, Marc
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 140, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.2221597

Model Prediction and Experiments for the Electrode Design Optimization of LiFePO 4 /Graphite Electrodes in High Capacity Lithium-ion Batteries
journal, January 2013

  • Yu, Seungho; Kim, Soo; Kim, Tae Young
  • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society, Vol. 34, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.5012/bkcs.2013.34.1.79

Tortuosity Determination of Battery Electrodes and Separators by Impedance Spectroscopy
journal, January 2016

  • Landesfeind, Johannes; Hattendorff, Johannes; Ehrl, Andreas
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 163, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1149/2.1141607jes

Effect of Electrode Parameters on LiFePO4 Cathodes
journal, January 2006

  • Yu, Denis Y. W.; Donoue, Kazunori; Inoue, Takao
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 153, Issue 5, p. A835-A839
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.2179199

The effect of local current density on electrode design for lithium-ion batteries
journal, June 2012


Optimizing Areal Capacities through Understanding the Limitations of Lithium-Ion Electrodes
journal, November 2015

  • Gallagher, Kevin G.; Trask, Stephen E.; Bauer, Christoph
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 163, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1149/2.0321602jes

Characteristics of porous beds and structures
journal, September 1956


Quantifying Mass Transport during Polarization in a Li Ion Battery Electrolyte by in Situ 7 Li NMR Imaging
journal, August 2012

  • Klett, Matilda; Giesecke, Marianne; Nyman, Andreas
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 134, Issue 36
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja305461j

Electrochemical Characterization and Temperature Dependency of Mass-Transport Properties of LiPF 6 in EC:DEC
journal, December 2014

  • Lundgren, Henrik; Behm, Mårten; Lindbergh, Göran
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 162, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1149/2.0641503jes

Unusual Stability of Acetonitrile-Based Superconcentrated Electrolytes for Fast-Charging Lithium-Ion Batteries
journal, March 2014

  • Yamada, Yuki; Furukawa, Keizo; Sodeyama, Keitaro
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 136, Issue 13, p. 5039-5046
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja412807w

On Graded Electrode Porosity as a Design Tool for Improving the Energy Density of Batteries
journal, December 2015

  • Dai, Yiling; Srinivasan, Venkat
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 163, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1149/2.0301603jes

State of the art of commercial Li ion batteries
journal, December 2000


Dynamic Aspects of Solid Solution Cathodes for Electrochemical Power Sources
journal, January 1979

  • Atlung, S.
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 126, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.2129269

Thermal Model for a Li-Ion Cell
journal, January 2008

  • Kumaresan, Karthikeyan; Sikha, Godfrey; White, Ralph E.
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 155, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.2817888

Local Tortuosity Inhomogeneities in a Lithium Battery Composite Electrode
journal, January 2011

  • Kehrwald, Dirk; Shearing, Paul R.; Brandon, Nigel P.
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 158, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1149/2.079112jes

The Birth of the Lithium-Ion Battery
journal, February 2012


Quantifying the promise of lithium–air batteries for electric vehicles
journal, January 2014

  • Gallagher, Kevin G.; Goebel, Steven; Greszler, Thomas
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 7, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1039/c3ee43870h

Design and Optimization of a Natural Graphite/Iron Phosphate Lithium-Ion Cell
journal, January 2004

  • Srinivasan, Venkat; Newman, John
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 151, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.1785013

Tool for Tortuosity Estimation in Lithium Ion Battery Porous Electrodes
journal, December 2014

  • Ebner, Martin; Wood, Vanessa
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 162, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1149/2.0111502jes

Prospects for reducing the processing cost of lithium ion batteries
journal, February 2015