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Title: Jumping-droplet electronics hot-spot cooling

Demand for enhanced cooling technologies within various commercial and consumer applications has increased in recent decades due to electronic devices becoming more energy dense. This study demonstrates jumping-droplet based electric-field-enhanced (EFE) condensation as a potential method to achieve active hot spot cooling in electronic devices. To test the viability of EFE condensation, we developed an experimental setup to remove heat via droplet evaporation from single and multiple high power gallium nitride (GaN) transistors acting as local hot spots (4.6 mm x 2.6 mm). An externally powered circuit was developed to direct jumping droplets from a copper oxide (CuO) nanostructured superhydrophobic surface to the transistor hot spots by applying electric fields between the condensing surface and the transistor. Heat transfer measurements were performed in ambient air (22-25°C air temperature, 20-45% relative humidity) to determine the effect of gap spacing (2-4 mm), electric field (50-250 V/cm), and heat flux (demonstrated to 13 W/cm 2). EFE condensation was shown to enhance the heat transfer from the local hot spot by ≈ 200% compared to cooling without jumping and by 20% compared to non-EFE jumping. Dynamic switching of the electric field for a two-GaN system reveals the potential for active cooling of mobile hotmore » spots. The opportunity for further cooling enhancement by the removal of non-condensable gases promises hot spot heat dissipation rates approaching 120 W/cm 2. Finally, this work provides a framework for the development of active jumping droplet based vapor chambers and heat pipes capable of spatial and temporal thermal dissipation control.« less
Authors:
ORCiD logo [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [3]
  1. Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States)
  2. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
  3. Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC04-94AL85000
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Applied Physics Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 110; Journal Issue: 12; Journal ID: ISSN 0003-6951
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Research Org:
Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE
OSTI Identifier:
1346473
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1361795

Oh, Junho, Birbarah, Patrick, Foulkes, Thomas, Yin, Sabrina L., Rentauskas, Michelle, Neely, Jason, Pilawa-Podgurski, Robert C. N., and Miljkovic, Nenad. Jumping-droplet electronics hot-spot cooling. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1063/1.4979034.
Oh, Junho, Birbarah, Patrick, Foulkes, Thomas, Yin, Sabrina L., Rentauskas, Michelle, Neely, Jason, Pilawa-Podgurski, Robert C. N., & Miljkovic, Nenad. Jumping-droplet electronics hot-spot cooling. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4979034.
Oh, Junho, Birbarah, Patrick, Foulkes, Thomas, Yin, Sabrina L., Rentauskas, Michelle, Neely, Jason, Pilawa-Podgurski, Robert C. N., and Miljkovic, Nenad. 2017. "Jumping-droplet electronics hot-spot cooling". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4979034. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1346473.
@article{osti_1346473,
title = {Jumping-droplet electronics hot-spot cooling},
author = {Oh, Junho and Birbarah, Patrick and Foulkes, Thomas and Yin, Sabrina L. and Rentauskas, Michelle and Neely, Jason and Pilawa-Podgurski, Robert C. N. and Miljkovic, Nenad},
abstractNote = {Demand for enhanced cooling technologies within various commercial and consumer applications has increased in recent decades due to electronic devices becoming more energy dense. This study demonstrates jumping-droplet based electric-field-enhanced (EFE) condensation as a potential method to achieve active hot spot cooling in electronic devices. To test the viability of EFE condensation, we developed an experimental setup to remove heat via droplet evaporation from single and multiple high power gallium nitride (GaN) transistors acting as local hot spots (4.6 mm x 2.6 mm). An externally powered circuit was developed to direct jumping droplets from a copper oxide (CuO) nanostructured superhydrophobic surface to the transistor hot spots by applying electric fields between the condensing surface and the transistor. Heat transfer measurements were performed in ambient air (22-25°C air temperature, 20-45% relative humidity) to determine the effect of gap spacing (2-4 mm), electric field (50-250 V/cm), and heat flux (demonstrated to 13 W/cm2). EFE condensation was shown to enhance the heat transfer from the local hot spot by ≈ 200% compared to cooling without jumping and by 20% compared to non-EFE jumping. Dynamic switching of the electric field for a two-GaN system reveals the potential for active cooling of mobile hot spots. The opportunity for further cooling enhancement by the removal of non-condensable gases promises hot spot heat dissipation rates approaching 120 W/cm2. Finally, this work provides a framework for the development of active jumping droplet based vapor chambers and heat pipes capable of spatial and temporal thermal dissipation control.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4979034},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 12,
volume = 110,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {3}
}

Works referenced in this record:

Purity of the sacred lotus, or escape from contamination in biological surfaces
journal, April 1997

Self-Propelled Dropwise Condensate on Superhydrophobic Surfaces
journal, October 2009