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Title: Attaining whole-ecosystem warming using air and deep-soil heating methods with an elevated CO<sub>2</sub> atmosphere

This paper describes the operational methods to achieve and measure both deep-soil heating (0–3 m) and whole-ecosystem warming (WEW) appropriate to the scale of tall-stature, high-carbon, boreal forest peatlands. The methods were developed to allow scientists to provide a plausible set of ecosystem-warming scenarios within which immediate and longer-term (1 decade) responses of organisms (microbes to trees) and ecosystem functions (carbon, water and nutrient cycles) could be measured. Elevated CO 2 was also incorporated to test how temperature responses may be modified by atmospheric CO 2 effects on carbon cycle processes. The WEW approach was successful in sustaining a wide range of aboveground and belowground temperature treatments (+0, +2.25, +4.5, +6.75 and +9 °C) in large 115 m 2 open-topped enclosures with elevated CO 2 treatments (+0 to +500 ppm). Air warming across the entire 10 enclosure study required ~90 % of the total energy for WEW ranging from 64 283 mega Joules (MJ) d –1 during the warm season to 80 102 MJ d –1 during cold months. Soil warming across the study required only 1.3 to 1.9 % of the energy used ranging from 954 to 1782 MJ d –1 of energy in the warm and cold seasons,more » respectively. The residual energy was consumed by measurement and communication systems. Sustained temperature and elevated CO 2 treatments were only constrained by occasional high external winds. This paper contrasts the in situ WEW method with closely related field-warming approaches using both aboveground (air or infrared heating) and belowground-warming methods. It also includes a full discussion of confounding factors that need to be considered carefully in the interpretation of experimental results. As a result, the WEW method combining aboveground and deep-soil heating approaches enables observations of future temperature conditions not available in the current observational record, and therefore provides a plausible glimpse of future environmental conditions.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [2] ; ORCiD logo [1] ;  [1] ;  [1]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  2. Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Biogeosciences (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Biogeosciences (Online); Journal Volume: 14; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 1726-4189
Publisher:
European Geosciences Union
Research Org:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
Work for Others (WFO); USDOE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES
OSTI Identifier:
1344998

Hanson, Paul J., Riggs, Jeffery S., Nettles, IV, W. Robert, Phillips, Jana Randolph, Krassovski, Misha B., Hook, Leslie A., Gu, Lianhong, Richardson, Andrew D., Aubrecht, Donald M., Ricciuto, Daniel M., Warren, Jeffrey M., and Barbier, Charlotte N.. Attaining whole-ecosystem warming using air and deep-soil heating methods with an elevated CO<sub>2</sub> atmosphere. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.5194/bg-14-861-2017.
Hanson, Paul J., Riggs, Jeffery S., Nettles, IV, W. Robert, Phillips, Jana Randolph, Krassovski, Misha B., Hook, Leslie A., Gu, Lianhong, Richardson, Andrew D., Aubrecht, Donald M., Ricciuto, Daniel M., Warren, Jeffrey M., & Barbier, Charlotte N.. Attaining whole-ecosystem warming using air and deep-soil heating methods with an elevated CO<sub>2</sub> atmosphere. United States. doi:10.5194/bg-14-861-2017.
Hanson, Paul J., Riggs, Jeffery S., Nettles, IV, W. Robert, Phillips, Jana Randolph, Krassovski, Misha B., Hook, Leslie A., Gu, Lianhong, Richardson, Andrew D., Aubrecht, Donald M., Ricciuto, Daniel M., Warren, Jeffrey M., and Barbier, Charlotte N.. 2017. "Attaining whole-ecosystem warming using air and deep-soil heating methods with an elevated CO<sub>2</sub> atmosphere". United States. doi:10.5194/bg-14-861-2017. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1344998.
@article{osti_1344998,
title = {Attaining whole-ecosystem warming using air and deep-soil heating methods with an elevated CO<sub>2</sub> atmosphere},
author = {Hanson, Paul J. and Riggs, Jeffery S. and Nettles, IV, W. Robert and Phillips, Jana Randolph and Krassovski, Misha B. and Hook, Leslie A. and Gu, Lianhong and Richardson, Andrew D. and Aubrecht, Donald M. and Ricciuto, Daniel M. and Warren, Jeffrey M. and Barbier, Charlotte N.},
abstractNote = {This paper describes the operational methods to achieve and measure both deep-soil heating (0–3 m) and whole-ecosystem warming (WEW) appropriate to the scale of tall-stature, high-carbon, boreal forest peatlands. The methods were developed to allow scientists to provide a plausible set of ecosystem-warming scenarios within which immediate and longer-term (1 decade) responses of organisms (microbes to trees) and ecosystem functions (carbon, water and nutrient cycles) could be measured. Elevated CO2 was also incorporated to test how temperature responses may be modified by atmospheric CO2 effects on carbon cycle processes. The WEW approach was successful in sustaining a wide range of aboveground and belowground temperature treatments (+0, +2.25, +4.5, +6.75 and +9 °C) in large 115 m2 open-topped enclosures with elevated CO2 treatments (+0 to +500 ppm). Air warming across the entire 10 enclosure study required ~90 % of the total energy for WEW ranging from 64 283 mega Joules (MJ) d–1 during the warm season to 80 102 MJ d–1 during cold months. Soil warming across the study required only 1.3 to 1.9 % of the energy used ranging from 954 to 1782 MJ d–1 of energy in the warm and cold seasons, respectively. The residual energy was consumed by measurement and communication systems. Sustained temperature and elevated CO2 treatments were only constrained by occasional high external winds. This paper contrasts the in situ WEW method with closely related field-warming approaches using both aboveground (air or infrared heating) and belowground-warming methods. It also includes a full discussion of confounding factors that need to be considered carefully in the interpretation of experimental results. As a result, the WEW method combining aboveground and deep-soil heating approaches enables observations of future temperature conditions not available in the current observational record, and therefore provides a plausible glimpse of future environmental conditions.},
doi = {10.5194/bg-14-861-2017},
journal = {Biogeosciences (Online)},
number = 4,
volume = 14,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {2}
}