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Title: A high-voltage rechargeable magnesium-sodium hybrid battery

There is a growing global demand for safe and low-cost energy storage technology which triggers strong interests in novel battery concepts beyond state-of-art Li-ion batteries. We report a high-voltage rechargeable Mg–Na hybrid battery featuring dendrite-free deposition of Mg anode and Na-intercalation cathode as a low-cost and safe alternative to Li-ion batteries for large-scale energy storage. A prototype device using a Na 3V 2(PO 4) 3 cathode, a Mg anode, and a Mg–Na dual salt electrolyte exhibits the highest voltage (2.60 V vs. Mg) and best rate performance (86% capacity retention at 10 C rate) among reported hybrid batteries. Synchrotron radiation-based X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), atomic-pair distribution function (PDF), and high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) studies reveal the chemical environment and structural change of Na 3V 2(PO 4) 3 cathode during the Na ion insertion/deinsertion process. XANES study shows a clear reversible shift of vanadium K-edge and HRXRD and PDF studies reveal a reversible two-phase transformation and V–O bond length change during cycling. The energy density of the hybrid cell could be further improved by developing electrolytes with a higher salt concentration and wider electrochemical window. Our work represents a significant step forward for practical safe and low-cost hybrid batteries.
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [1] ;  [4] ;  [2] ;  [5]
  1. Univ. of Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Materials Science and Engineering Program
  2. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Electrochemical Materials and Systems Group. Energy and Environment Directorate
  3. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). X-ray Science Division
  4. Univ. of Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry. Texas Center for Superconductivity
  5. Univ. of Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Materials Science and Engineering Program. Texas Center for Superconductivity
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 2211-2855; PII: S2211285517300782
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830; AC02-06CH11357; 57558; N00014-13-1-0543; CMMI-1400261
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nano Energy
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 34; Journal ID: ISSN 2211-2855
Research Org:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); USDOE Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE); US Department of the Navy, Office of Naval Research (ONR); National Science Foundation (NSF)
Country of Publication:
United States
25 ENERGY STORAGE; hybrid Mg–Na ion battery; Na3V2(PO4)3; Mg; XANES; pair density function
OSTI Identifier:
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1366533; OSTI ID: 1415688