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Title: Manipulating the Rate-Limiting Step in Water Oxidation Catalysis by Ruthenium Bipyridine–Dicarboxylate Complexes

In order to gain a deeper mechanistic understanding of water oxidation by [(bda)Ru(L) 2] catalysts (bdaH 2 = [2,2'-bipyridine]-6,6'-dicarboxylic acid; L = pyridine-type ligand), a series of modified catalysts with one and two trifluoromethyl groups in the 4 position of the bda 2– ligand was synthesized and studied using stopped-flow kinetics. The additional $-$CF 3 groups increased the oxidation potentials for the catalysts and enhanced the rate of electrocatalytic water oxidation at low pH. Stopped-flow measurements of cerium(IV)-driven water oxidation at pH 1 revealed two distinct kinetic regimes depending on catalyst concentration. At relatively high catalyst concentration (ca. ≥10 –4 M), the rate-determining step (RDS) was a proton-coupled oxidation of the catalyst by cerium(IV) with direct kinetic isotope effects (KIE > 1). At low catalyst concentration (ca. ≤10 –6 M), the RDS was a bimolecular step with k H/k D ≈ 0.8. The results support a catalytic mechanism involving coupling of two catalyst molecules. The rate constants for both RDSs were determined for all six catalysts studied. The presence of $-$CF 3 groups had inverse effects on the two steps, with the oxidation step being fastest for the unsubstituted complexes and the bimolecular step being faster for the most electron-deficientmore » complexes. Finally, though the axial ligands studied here did not significantly affect the oxidation potentials of the catalysts, the nature of the ligand was found to be important not only in the bimolecular step but also in facilitating electron transfer from the metal center to the sacrificial oxidant.« less
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [1]
  1. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Division
  2. City Univ. (CUNY), NY (United States). Baruch College. Dept. of Natural Science
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 0020-1669; R&D Project: CO026; KC0304030
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Inorganic Chemistry
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 55; Journal Issue: 22; Journal ID: ISSN 0020-1669
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Research Org:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Country of Publication:
United States
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; water oxidation; oxo-oxo coupling; bimolecular; inverse KIE; single-site
OSTI Identifier: