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Title: Core–shell-structured Li 3V 2(PO 4) 3 –LiVOPO 4 nanocomposites cathode for high-rate and long-life lithium-ion batteries

A facile strategy has been developed to construct unique core–shell-structured Li 2.7V 2.1(PO 4) 3 nanocomposites with a Li 3V 2(PO 4) 3 core and LiVOPO 4 shell by using nonstoichiometric design and high-energy ball milling (HEBM) treatment. The HEBM treatment supplies enough energy to drive the excess V atoms to the surface to form a V-enriched shell. Such kind of cathode can deliver a high reversible capacity of 131.5 mAhg $-$1 at 0.5 C, which is close to the theoretical capacity (133 mAhg $-$1 in 3.0–4.3 V). Even at 20 C, it still delivers an excellent discharge capacity of 116.3 mAhg $-$1, and a remarkable capacity of 111.0 mAhg $-$1 after 1000 cycles, corresponding to an ultra-small capacity-loss of 0.0046% per cycle. Finally, the significantly improved high-rate electrochemical performance can be attributed to the active shell of LiVOPO 4, which not only efficiently facilitates the electron and Li + ion transport during cycling processes, but also accommodates more Li+ ions to effectively compensate the capacity loss of the core.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [2]
  1. Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China). Dept. of Physics
  2. Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China). College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
  3. Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China). College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering; Nanjing Univ. (China). National Lab. of Solid State Microstructures
  4. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN)
  5. Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China). Dept. of Physics; Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China). College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
BNL-113494-2017-JA
Journal ID: ISSN 2046-2069; RSCACL; R&D Project: 16060; 16060
Grant/Contract Number:
SC0012704
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
RSC Advances
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 7; Journal Issue: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 2046-2069
Publisher:
Royal Society of Chemistry
Research Org:
Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY, AND ECONOMY; lithium vanadium phosphate; high-energy ball milling; nonstoichiometry; core-shell structure; Center for Functional Nanomaterials
OSTI Identifier:
1344223