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Title: Conservation of artists' acrylic emulsion paints: XPS, NEXAFS and ATR-FTIR studies of wet cleaning methods

Works of art prepared with acrylic emulsion paints became commercially available in the 1960s. It is increasingly necessary to undertake and optimise cleaning and preventative conservation treatments to ensure their longevity. Model artists' acrylic paint films covered with artificial soiling were thus prepared on a canvas support and exposed to a variety of wet cleaning treatments based on aqueous or hydrocarbon solvent systems. This included some with additives such as chelating agents and/or surfactants, and microemulsion systems made specifically for conservation practice. The impact of cleaning (soiling removal) on the paint film surface was examined visually and correlated with results of attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared, XPS and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure analyses – three spectroscopic techniques with increasing surface sensitivity ranging from approximately $-$ 1000, 10 and 5 nm, respectively. Visual analysis established the relative cleaning efficacy of the wet cleaning treatments in line with previous results. X-ray spectroscopy analysis provided significant additional findings, including evidence for (i) surfactant extraction following aqueous swabbing, (ii) modifications to pigment following cleaning and (iii) cleaning system residues.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [4]
  1. Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science
  2. Tate, Millbank, London (United Kingdom)
  3. National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD (United States)
  4. Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science; Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). School of Chemistry
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-98CH10886
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Surface and Interface Analysis
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 46; Journal Issue: 10-11; Journal ID: ISSN 0142-2421
Publisher:
Wiley
Research Org:
Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; acrylic emulsion paint; Heritage Science; XPS; NEXAFS; ATR-FTIR; microemulsion; cleaning; residue; pigment
OSTI Identifier:
1343105

Willneff, E. A., Ormsby, B. A., Stevens, J. S., Jaye, C., Fischer, D. A., and Schroeder, S. L. M.. Conservation of artists' acrylic emulsion paints: XPS, NEXAFS and ATR-FTIR studies of wet cleaning methods. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1002/sia.5376.
Willneff, E. A., Ormsby, B. A., Stevens, J. S., Jaye, C., Fischer, D. A., & Schroeder, S. L. M.. Conservation of artists' acrylic emulsion paints: XPS, NEXAFS and ATR-FTIR studies of wet cleaning methods. United States. doi:10.1002/sia.5376.
Willneff, E. A., Ormsby, B. A., Stevens, J. S., Jaye, C., Fischer, D. A., and Schroeder, S. L. M.. 2014. "Conservation of artists' acrylic emulsion paints: XPS, NEXAFS and ATR-FTIR studies of wet cleaning methods". United States. doi:10.1002/sia.5376. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1343105.
@article{osti_1343105,
title = {Conservation of artists' acrylic emulsion paints: XPS, NEXAFS and ATR-FTIR studies of wet cleaning methods},
author = {Willneff, E. A. and Ormsby, B. A. and Stevens, J. S. and Jaye, C. and Fischer, D. A. and Schroeder, S. L. M.},
abstractNote = {Works of art prepared with acrylic emulsion paints became commercially available in the 1960s. It is increasingly necessary to undertake and optimise cleaning and preventative conservation treatments to ensure their longevity. Model artists' acrylic paint films covered with artificial soiling were thus prepared on a canvas support and exposed to a variety of wet cleaning treatments based on aqueous or hydrocarbon solvent systems. This included some with additives such as chelating agents and/or surfactants, and microemulsion systems made specifically for conservation practice. The impact of cleaning (soiling removal) on the paint film surface was examined visually and correlated with results of attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared, XPS and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure analyses – three spectroscopic techniques with increasing surface sensitivity ranging from approximately $-$ 1000, 10 and 5 nm, respectively. Visual analysis established the relative cleaning efficacy of the wet cleaning treatments in line with previous results. X-ray spectroscopy analysis provided significant additional findings, including evidence for (i) surfactant extraction following aqueous swabbing, (ii) modifications to pigment following cleaning and (iii) cleaning system residues.},
doi = {10.1002/sia.5376},
journal = {Surface and Interface Analysis},
number = 10-11,
volume = 46,
place = {United States},
year = {2014},
month = {2}
}