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Title: Thermal engineering of FAPbI 3 perovskite material via radiative thermal annealing and in situ XRD

Lead halide perovskites have emerged as successful optoelectronic materials with high photovoltaic power conversion efficiencies and low material cost. However, substantial challenges remain in the scalability, stability and fundamental understanding of the materials. Here we present the application of radiative thermal annealing, an easily scalable processing method for synthesizing formamidinium lead iodide (FAPbI 3) perovskite solar absorbers. Devices fabricated from films formed via radiative thermal annealing have equivalent efficiencies to those annealed using a conventional hotplate. By coupling results from in situ X-ray diffraction using a radiative thermal annealing system with device performances, we mapped the processing phase space of FAPbI 3 and corresponding device efficiencies. Our map of processing-structure-performance space suggests the commonly used FAPbI 3 annealing time, 10 min at 170 degrees C, can be significantly reduced to 40 s at 170 degrees C without affecting the photovoltaic performance. Lastly, the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami model was used to determine the activation energy for decomposition of FAPbI 3 into PbI 2.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [1] ;  [3] ; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL)
  2. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering
  3. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  4. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering
  5. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering; Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Renewable and Sustainable Energy Inst.
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5K00-67451
Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723
Grant/Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308; EE0005951; AC02-76SF00515
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 8; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Research Org:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Solar Energy Technologies Office (EE-4S); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; photovoltaics; perovskites; in situ structure analysis; solar cells
OSTI Identifier:
1343077

Pool, Vanessa L., Dou, Benjia, Van Campen, Douglas G., Klein-Stockert, Talysa R., Barnes, Frank S., Shaheen, Sean E., Ahmad, Md I., van Hest, Maikel F. A. M., and Toney, Michael F.. Thermal engineering of FAPbI3 perovskite material via radiative thermal annealing and in situ XRD. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1038/ncomms14075.
Pool, Vanessa L., Dou, Benjia, Van Campen, Douglas G., Klein-Stockert, Talysa R., Barnes, Frank S., Shaheen, Sean E., Ahmad, Md I., van Hest, Maikel F. A. M., & Toney, Michael F.. Thermal engineering of FAPbI3 perovskite material via radiative thermal annealing and in situ XRD. United States. doi:10.1038/ncomms14075.
Pool, Vanessa L., Dou, Benjia, Van Campen, Douglas G., Klein-Stockert, Talysa R., Barnes, Frank S., Shaheen, Sean E., Ahmad, Md I., van Hest, Maikel F. A. M., and Toney, Michael F.. 2017. "Thermal engineering of FAPbI3 perovskite material via radiative thermal annealing and in situ XRD". United States. doi:10.1038/ncomms14075. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1343077.
@article{osti_1343077,
title = {Thermal engineering of FAPbI3 perovskite material via radiative thermal annealing and in situ XRD},
author = {Pool, Vanessa L. and Dou, Benjia and Van Campen, Douglas G. and Klein-Stockert, Talysa R. and Barnes, Frank S. and Shaheen, Sean E. and Ahmad, Md I. and van Hest, Maikel F. A. M. and Toney, Michael F.},
abstractNote = {Lead halide perovskites have emerged as successful optoelectronic materials with high photovoltaic power conversion efficiencies and low material cost. However, substantial challenges remain in the scalability, stability and fundamental understanding of the materials. Here we present the application of radiative thermal annealing, an easily scalable processing method for synthesizing formamidinium lead iodide (FAPbI3) perovskite solar absorbers. Devices fabricated from films formed via radiative thermal annealing have equivalent efficiencies to those annealed using a conventional hotplate. By coupling results from in situ X-ray diffraction using a radiative thermal annealing system with device performances, we mapped the processing phase space of FAPbI3 and corresponding device efficiencies. Our map of processing-structure-performance space suggests the commonly used FAPbI3 annealing time, 10 min at 170 degrees C, can be significantly reduced to 40 s at 170 degrees C without affecting the photovoltaic performance. Lastly, the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami model was used to determine the activation energy for decomposition of FAPbI3 into PbI2.},
doi = {10.1038/ncomms14075},
journal = {Nature Communications},
number = ,
volume = 8,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {1}
}

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