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Title: Snowflake divertor experiments in the DIII-D, NSTX, and NSTX-U tokamaks aimed at the development of the divertor power exhaust solution

Experimental results from the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), a medium-size spherical tokamak with a compact divertor, and DIII-D, a large conventional aspect ratio tokamak, demonstrate that the snowflake (SF) divertor configuration may provide a promising solution for mitigating divertor heat loads and target plate erosion compatible with core H-mode confinement in the future fusion devices, where the standard radiative divertor solution may be inadequate. In NSTX, where the initial high-power SF experiment was performed, the SF divertor was compatible with H-mode confinement, and led to the destabilization of large Edge Localized Modes (ELMs). However, a stable partial detachment of the outer strike point was also achieved where inter-ELM peak heat flux was reduced by factors 3-5, and peak ELM heat flux was reduced by up to 80% (see standard divertor). The DIII-D studies show the SF divertor enables significant power spreading in attached and radiative divertor conditions. Results include: compatibility with the core and pedestal, peak inter-ELM divertor heat flux reduction due to geometry at lower ne, and ELM energy and divertor peak heat flux reduction, especially prominent in radiative D 2-seeded SF divertor, and nearly complete power detachment and broader radiated power distribution in the radiative D 2-seededmore » SF divertor at PSOL = 3 - 4 MW. A variety of SF configurations can be supported by the divertor coil set in NSTX Upgrade. Edge transport modeling with the multifluid edge transport code UEDGE shows that the radiative SF divertor can successfully reduce peak divertor heat flux for the projected PSOL ≃ 9 MW case. Furthermore, the radiative SF divertor with carbon impurity provides a wider ne operating window, 50% less argon is needed in the impurity-seeded SF configuration to achieve similar q peak reduction factors (see standard divertor).« less
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  1. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  2. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)
  3. Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
  4. General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)
  5. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  6. Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)
  7. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 0093-3813; TRN: US1701246
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 44; Journal Issue: 12; Journal ID: ISSN 0093-3813
Research Org:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
Country of Publication:
United States
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION; tokamaks; divertors; plasma materials interactions
OSTI Identifier: