skip to main content


Title: Current understanding of structure-processing-property relationships in BaTiO 3-Bi( M)O 3 dielectrics

Here, as part of a continued push for high permittivity dielectrics suitable for use at elevated operating temperatures and/or large electric fields, modifications of BaTiO 3 with Bi( M)O 3, where M represents a net-trivalent B-site occupied by one or more species, have received a great deal of recent attention. Materials in this composition family exhibit weakly coupled relaxor behavior that is not only remarkably stable at high temperatures and under large electric fields, but is also quite similar across various identities of M. Moderate levels of Bi content (as much as 50 mol%) appear to be crucial to the stability of the dielectric response. In addition, the presence of significant Bi reduces the processing temperatures required for densification and increases the required oxygen content in processing atmospheres relative to traditional X7R-type BaTiO 3-based dielectrics. Although detailed understanding of the structure–processing–property relationships in this class of materials is still in its infancy, this article reviews the current state of understanding of the mechanisms underlying the high and stable values of both relative permittivity and resistivity that are characteristic of BaTiO 3-Bi( M)O 3 dielectrics as well as the processing challenges and opportunities associated with these materials.
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [6] ;  [7] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [1]
  1. Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)
  2. Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)
  3. North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)
  4. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  5. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
  6. Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand)
  7. Univ. of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725; AC02-06CH11357; AC52-06NA25396
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of the American Ceramic Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 99; Journal Issue: 9; Journal ID: ISSN 0002-7820
American Ceramic Society
Research Org:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE)
Country of Publication:
United States
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; perovskites; multilayer capacitor; barium titanate; dielectric; materials/properties; relaxors
OSTI Identifier:
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1401236