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Title: Stable electrolyte for high voltage electrochemical double-layer capacitors

A simple electrolyte consisting of NaPF 6 salt in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) can extend the voltage window of electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) to >3.5 V. DME does not passivate carbon electrodes at very negative potentials (near Na/Na +), extending the practical voltage window by about 1.0 V compared to standard, non-aqueous electrolytes based on acetonitrile. The voltage window is demonstrated in two- and three-electrode cells using a combination of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), charge-discharge cycling, and measurements of leakage current. DME-based electrolytes cannot match the high conductivity of acetonitrile solutions, but they can satisfy applications that demand high energy density at moderate power. The conductivity of NaPF 6 in DME is comparable to commercial lithium-ion battery electrolytes and superior to most ionic liquids. Lastly, factors that limit the voltage window and EDLC energy density are discussed, and strategies to further boost energy density are proposed.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [3] ;  [3]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  2. Electrosynthesis Co., Lancaster, NY (United States)
  3. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of the Electrochemical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 164; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 0013-4651
Publisher:
The Electrochemical Society
Research Org:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
30 DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION; double layer capacitor; electrochemical window; electrolyte; ether; glyme; high voltage; supercapacitor; voltage window
OSTI Identifier:
1342683

Ruther, Rose E., Sun, Che -Nan, Holliday, Adam, Cheng, Shiwang, Delnick, Frank M., Zawodzinski, Thomas A., and Nanda, Jagjit. Stable electrolyte for high voltage electrochemical double-layer capacitors. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1149/2.0951702jes.
Ruther, Rose E., Sun, Che -Nan, Holliday, Adam, Cheng, Shiwang, Delnick, Frank M., Zawodzinski, Thomas A., & Nanda, Jagjit. Stable electrolyte for high voltage electrochemical double-layer capacitors. United States. doi:10.1149/2.0951702jes.
Ruther, Rose E., Sun, Che -Nan, Holliday, Adam, Cheng, Shiwang, Delnick, Frank M., Zawodzinski, Thomas A., and Nanda, Jagjit. 2016. "Stable electrolyte for high voltage electrochemical double-layer capacitors". United States. doi:10.1149/2.0951702jes. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1342683.
@article{osti_1342683,
title = {Stable electrolyte for high voltage electrochemical double-layer capacitors},
author = {Ruther, Rose E. and Sun, Che -Nan and Holliday, Adam and Cheng, Shiwang and Delnick, Frank M. and Zawodzinski, Thomas A. and Nanda, Jagjit},
abstractNote = {A simple electrolyte consisting of NaPF6 salt in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) can extend the voltage window of electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) to >3.5 V. DME does not passivate carbon electrodes at very negative potentials (near Na/Na+), extending the practical voltage window by about 1.0 V compared to standard, non-aqueous electrolytes based on acetonitrile. The voltage window is demonstrated in two- and three-electrode cells using a combination of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), charge-discharge cycling, and measurements of leakage current. DME-based electrolytes cannot match the high conductivity of acetonitrile solutions, but they can satisfy applications that demand high energy density at moderate power. The conductivity of NaPF6 in DME is comparable to commercial lithium-ion battery electrolytes and superior to most ionic liquids. Lastly, factors that limit the voltage window and EDLC energy density are discussed, and strategies to further boost energy density are proposed.},
doi = {10.1149/2.0951702jes},
journal = {Journal of the Electrochemical Society},
number = 2,
volume = 164,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {12}
}

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